Циркумфиксы как показатели актантной деривации
The topic of this article has to do with the types of interaction between prefixes and suffixes in the morphological structure and semantic interpretation of the extremely complex polysynthetic Adyghe verbal form. As we show, the relationships between the elements of the different parts of the verbal form are both non-trivial and heterogeneous, which suggests that affix interaction can be an important parameter of morphological complexity in languages.
The cases of interaction between prefixes and suffixes vary in three parameters: 1) the direction of restriction (from suffix to prefix or the other way around); 2) semantic relations between suffix and prefix; 3) range of restriction (suffix and prefix impossible without each other; possible, but with an idiomatic meaning, and so on).
Restrictions of the Adyghe type can be an important criterion for grammatical semantics and morphology, since they show which meanings and to which extent are conceptualized as close to each other by the language system.
In my article, I address the factors which favor using a verb as labile (both transitive and intransitive, with no formal change required).
Haspelmath (1993) proposes that the key feature which conditions a way of marking (in)transitivity of verbs in the transitive / intransitive verb pair is the spontaneity parameter.
However, the statistical analysis of Haspelmath’s data shows that for labile / ambitransitive verb the main parameter is the lexical semantic class of the verb, not the degree of spontaneity. This lets us discover a more general principle: phenomena which are not purely grammatical, but rather lexico-grammatical (as lability) depend on lexical features, not on generalized grammatical or semantic parameters.
Aims and Scope
Earlier empirical studies on valency have looked at the phenomenon either in individual languages or a small range of languages, or have concerned themselves with only small subparts of valency (e.g. transitivity, ditransitive constructions), leaving a lacuna that the present volume aims to fill by considering a wide range of valency phenomena across 30 languages from different parts of the world. The individual-language studies, each written by a specialist or group of specialists on that language and covering both valency patterns and valency alternations, are based on a questionnaire (reproduced in the volume) and an on-line freely accessible database, thus guaranteeing comparability of cross-linguistic results. In addition, introductory chapters provide the background to the project and discuss its main characteristics and selected results, while a series of featured articles by leading scholars who helped shape the field provide an outside perspective on the volume’s approach. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in valency and argument structure, irrespective of theoretical persuasion, and will serve as a model for future descriptive studies of valency in individual languages.
The volume includes papers devoted to valency change operations in various languages.
In the article, the relevance of Bybee's opposition of product-based generalizations vs. source-based generalizations for syntax is argued. Corpus data of Russian are used.