Интеллектуальные ресурсы: ключевые детерминанты стоимости компании в новой экономике
Increased attention and focus has been laid on the strategic importance of intellectual capital for modern management. However, intangible resources appear difficult to measure. Today, there are several methods, both financial and nonfinancial ones that allow managing them, to provide benchmarking and analyze its value added function (Sveiby, 2007). The rare investigations of intellectual capital in Russian enterprises show that “Almost in all industries it is still more profitable to invest in tangible assets rather than in intangible ones” (Volkov, Garanina, 2007). Still, some investigations on the micro level show that there are enterprises with high level of technological capital and innovative activity. The researchers called them “innovative leaders” and empirically proved that they have high labour productivity and are awarded by market through extra profit (Gonchar et al., 2010). Using the research sample and Pulic’s Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC™) the authors investigate empirically the dynamics and structure of VAIC, and study the relation between the intellectual capital and indicators of organizational performance, such as labour productivity, sales growth and profitability. Additionally, the VAIC™ model allows analysing the role of human, structural and physical capital. This paper outlines the study based on 350 Russian industrial enterprises’ annual statistical and account reports from 2005 through 2007. Besides, the authors adopt the VAIC calculation according to the Russian accounting system’s specifications and limitations. The findings support the hypothesis that a company’s intellectual capital influences favourably the organizational performance, and may indicate future competitiveness. A proof showing that the explanatory power of models is higher when considering the additional variables such as investment in fixed capital, R&D expenditures and a company’s size is represented. The results extend the understanding of the intellectual capital role in creation of sustainable advantages for companies in developing economies where different technological advancements may bring different implications for organizational value creation efficiency.
Current article is dedicated to the relationship between effectiveness of usage of intellectual capital and capital structure of firms in Russia in 2005-2007. Current research showed that effectiveness of usage of intellectual capital of firms has a positive influence over the level of financial leverage. The result of the research has showed that the more effective usage of intellectual capital makes a company more attractive for the credit organizations and opens more sources to obtain financing. There were also revealed some specific features of relationship between the effectiveness of utilization of intellectual capital and corporate financial decisions in Russia. The result is consistent with the results from the similar researches from the developed markets.
This paper aims at explaining the differences in valuation of banking firms in Russia through the impact of selected elements of corporate governance. We rely upon value-based management theory to test the hypothesis that expenses on corporate governance system create shareholder value. The price at which share stakes are acquired by strategic foreign investors is for us a criterion of market-proven value, so we use the standard valuation tool, i.e. price-to-book-value of equity (P/BV) multiple, as the dependent variable. The set of corporate governance parameters whose materiality for a would-be external investor we would like to test includes: the degree of concentration of ownership and control; maturity of corporate governing bodies; degree of Board independence; qualification of external auditors; stability of governing bodies (Management Board and Board of Directors); and availability of external credit ratings from the world’s leading rating agencies. We test our approach on a sample of acquisition deals and public offerings over the period 2004-2008 that we develop for the first time. Firstly, we find out which factors are statistically significant and relevant to a bank’s selling price. Secondly, a least squares multiple linear regression model is devised to check how each individual variable impacts the dependent variable. We discover that external investors attach value to high concentration of ownership, external credit rating coverage, stability of the Board of Directors, and involvement of well-established external auditors. Investors of a strategic nature tend to pay a higher acquisition premium. Independence of the Board of Directors might be perceived by external strategic investors as a disadvantage and might destroy shareholder value.