Взаимодействие языков и социокультурная идентичность в условиях современного мультикультурного общества
The article covers different variants of language interaction in the modern world – from code-switching to borrowings – resulting from the language contacts (bilingual and multilingual) and reflecting sociocultural changes during the globalization period. Forms and mechanisms for interaction of the Russian and German languages and the formation of sociocultural identity in a multicultural society are analyzed through the example of sociolinguistic situation of the Russian speaking diaspora in Germany.
Actes du Congrès "Pluralisme et Reconnaissance" 22-24 juin 2006, Unesco, Paris. The present volume presents fully original articles, prepared for publication basing upon the texts of keynote reports presented at plenary sessions of the 9th International Congress in Philosophy and Cultural Studies, which was conducted by the St. Petersburg Branch of the Russian Institute for Cultural Studies and the UNESCO Chair for Comparative Studies of Spiritual Traditions, their Specific Cultures and Inter-religious Dialogue, functioning on the basis of the aforementioned Instiute.
The article explores the 16-th century lawsuit in Paris University. If we look for the causes of future collisions in the 1586 court hearings, then we should speak more generally about the conflict between the Theology and Art Faculties, between the dean and the Rector, or between the Sorbonne and Navarra colleges. Latent rivalry, hitherto shadowed by struggle against the ‘common’ enemies, such as the Protestants, Jesuits, royal encroachments on academic privileges and property (such as Pré-aux-Clercs), the attempts to carry out a radical college reform, would boil over into an open conflict in the mid-17th century. Weapon in all these conflicts was University history. The author scrutinized the lawers’ arguments as the building materials for inventing traditions of Paris University.
The report gives a brief overview of the biggest challenges that teachers of English phonetics face nowadays and outlines some solutions that have been brought about by recent cutting-edge research in the field. The English language is a global phenomenon of the modern world, and this is why many such solutions are technology-driven, whereas the researchers hail from all over the world. The crucial task to deal with is raising awareness of the importance of phonetics as the cornerstone of all language learning and motivating people to study it, which could also increase the number of young researchers pushing the theory of phonetics forward and thus improving its practical teaching.
The collapse of communism has opened up Russia and East-Central Europe to outside influences and enabled new lifestyle choices and forms of religious expression. Based on extensive ethnographic research, this collection uses a variety of theoretical perspectives and methodologies to examine some of the many subcultures and new religious movements that have emerged as part of this process, from members of utopian eco-communities, native-language hip-hoppers and nationalistic skinheads to various forms of Indian-inspired spirituality, neo-paganism and theosophy. Whether they reflect a growing sense of national or ethnic identity, the influence of globalization or a combination of the two, such groups highlight the challenge of creating a free, open and tolerant society in both Russia and new or prospective EU member states. The book seeks to contribute to academic and policy debates in this area by increasing understanding of the groups in question. The studies in this collection present selected findings from the three-year EU-funded project 'Society and Lifestyles: Towards Enhancing Social Harmonization through Knowledge of Subcultural Communities' (2006-2008), which included partners from a wide range of post-communist countries in Eastern Europe and from the UK.
Variation and variety, basic linguistic notions elaborated, among many others, in Prof. Schweitzer’s works, are addressed in the article in the context of an increase in variation in modern Russian under the influence of global English. The increase in contact-induced variation is investigated in connection with the following: 1) an increase in borrowings and semantic calques from English into Russian, 2) an increase in Russian-English code-switching and code-mixing, and 3) major changes in Russian-English interaction contributing to the change of status of English in Russia and the initiation of a specific regional variety of English, Russia(n) English.
The author considers new tendencies in national languages development during globalization epoch, reveals the connection between socio-cultural and socio-linguistic changes and swift distribution of modern information technologies and pays special attention to the necessity of taking measures on languages protection from the destructive factors accompanying globalization process with the purpose of language variety preservation in the world and guaranteeing nations cultural traditions continuity.
Russia is a country of great complexity—eighty-nine subject regions, ethnic diversity, economic variance across regions, the power struggle of Moscow versus the regions—and multiple realities—urban versus rural, rich versus poor, and cosmopolitan versus provincial, just to name a few. Fragmented Space in the Russian Federation explores Russia's complexity and the meanings of the country's internal borders, the future of its agricultural spaces, the development of its political parties, and the effect of its federal organization.
The contributors examine stratification, citizenship, federalization, democratization, the politics of culture and identity, and globalization. These essays show how political leaders within Russia and scholars and policymakers from outside must accept the country's complexity and view uncertainty as a positive development rather than a liability. The authors explore how Russian experience can enhance theory political science, sociology, geography, and economics.
Language contacts have been extensively studied linguistically and sociolinguistically. This paper argues that cross-cultural analysis of language transfer can also prove useful in contact linguistics. One of the latest borrowings from English into Russian, the semantic calque vyzov vyzovy (‘challenge/challenges’) used often in the cliche´ ugrozy i vyzovy (‘threats and hallenges’), makes certain shifts in the Russian world view traceable. Challenge, a key word in English, is untranslatable into Russian and the trite Russian translation equivalent for challenge – problema (‘problem’) reveals important differences between the two cultures: the Anglophone (especially, American) linguaculture, whose dominant values are individual success and activity, competitiveness, positive thinking, sense of adventure, etc., perceives difficulties as ‘‘stimuli’’ and conceptualizes them in terms of challenges; contrary to this, the Russian linguaculture, which is, if compared with the Western cultures, ‘‘being-oriented,’’ ‘‘relationship-oriented,’’ ‘passive’’ and ‘‘pessimistic,’’ encourages the discussion of difficulties in terms of problems. The borrowing of the concept challenge by extending the meaning of vyzov registers a shift of the Russian value system in the direction of increased agentivity, assertiveness, positivism, competitiveness, etc. Such borrowings are ‘‘challenges’’ rather than ‘‘threats’’ to the Russian language and culture and they call for a more in-depth linguacultural analysis of English–Russian interactions.
The paper aims to show that globalization of English does not imply its mere passive consumption by local languages and cultures. Global English often functions as an important “other” in interaction with which local cultural identities are refashioned and maintained. Several recent English-Russian borrowings are analyzed to vindicate this idea.