River basin councils: evidence from Russia
Ecological politics in regard to natural resources, including water resources, can be implemented in many different ways: by administrative power, economic effect or social motivation. But the achievement of efficient water resources usage is hampered by the fact that these resources are collective access ones. In this article the experience of the basin districts creation in Russia is highlighted. Basin councils working in the districts are aimed at developing recommendations in the field of use and protection of water objects.
With a view to early detection of statistical instability of water quality, it is necessary to analyze the probability of deviations of parameters under inspection from their most probable values. It is shown the outlook of using in this case time-frame inspection charts enabling to fix with high reliability the exit of the system from sustainable state, and on this basis to make management decisions, such as on the transfer of water management into emergency mode of operation or on the need to find the source of instability.
Paper presents an optimal control model with the stocks of two resource: one is the stock of exhaustible resource (groundwater) and the other is the stock of waste water which is a by-product of water use. Waste water could be re-used but this resource has a higher marginal cost than the groundwater. The characteristics of effi cient water consumption vector and dynamics of groundwater and waste water stocks are analyzed under the assumption of limited storage capacity of waste water stocks. The sensitivity of effi cient vectors of exogenous parameters (groundwater stock and its refi ll, marginal cost of renewable substitute) is investigated.
The concept of sustainable development (SD) is aimed at preserving life on Earth and ensuring a decent level of life for the present and future generations. It is based on the values of conservation of natural resources, responsible consumption and ethical business practices, and confronts modern global challenges. The transition to SD implies a revision of existing values in the economics, ecology and social life of society. In this regard, education plays the most important role because it is responsible for the formation of the attitudes of the younger generation, and progress in the transformation of formal and informal institutional frameworks. In order to realize these processes, The UN has developed the global program "Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" and formulated one of the specialized goals in the system of seventeen sustainable development goals approved by the UN for 2016-2030. Higher education plays a special role there, since it not only creates and disseminates knowledge about SD, but also influences the process of making future decisions by managers of various levels. In this context, the concept of “sustainable university” is becoming highly relevant and the experience of its practical implementation is gaining special importance. The purpose of this work is to overview the research papers of Russian and foreign authors to identify the specific features of a sustainable university as a necessary element of ESD.
The given analytical report was prepared on the commision and by request of the European Enviromemnt Agency (EEA) and is a part of the common EEA project on the implementation of the assessment of assessments of the state of the environment in the pan-European region for presentation at the VII Ministerial "Environment for Europe" conference, Astana, Kazakhstan, 2011. The report was published within the series of reports by the EEA (Copenhagen, Denmark). It contains the assessment of environmental assessments in the Russian Federation and the country environmental profile of Russia. Special attention in the report is paid to such topics as water resources abd related ecosystems, as well as to the issues of green economy and resource efficiency in Russia.