Аграрный вопрос и развитие сельского хозяйства: Чаянов и современная Россия
Chayanov A.V. On the Agrarian Question. Translated from: Chayanov A.V. What is the Agrarian Question? Moscow: Joint-stock company “Universal Library”, 1917. 63 p. (League for Agrarian Reforms)
A theoretical contribution to the economics and statistics of prominent scientists is described: A. Fayol, one of the founders of industrial management, academician, one of the CEMI RAS' founders N.P. Fedorenko, Nobel Prize winner 1993 R.W. Vogel, the greatest economist of the Middle Ages, the scholastician Thomas Aquinas, a prominent peasant scholar and predecessor of Chayanov - A.F. Fortunatov.
The theoretical contribution to the economics and statistics of prominent Russian pre-revolutionary scientists was resurrected and described: A.V. Chayanov, a theorist of zoning A.N. Chelintsev, statisticians N.S. Chetverikoff and A.A. Chuprow, who worked with E.E. Slutsky and N.D. Kondratieff, then striking public figure and educator A.I. Chuprow, at last professor at Moscow State University and the adept of V.K. Dmitrieff' ideas - N.N. Shaposhnikoff. Their intellectual biographies with previously unknown details are given as well.
Rural Russia is undergoing profound changes in its social and economic structure, differing greatly in numerous regions of the country and in the agrarian economy as a whole. This is due to both internal transformations of the last decades of post-Soviet transition and external causes related to processes globalization. The most visible of these changes is the growing concentration of large-scale agribusiness landholdings. This concentration is transforming rural-urban linkages, intensifying rural-urban migration, leading to the disappearance of smallholders, family farmers and even entire rural settlements. This contribution considers key aspects of contemporary rural-urban reciprocity in Russia through the analytical lens of the utopian models of rural development proposed by A.V. Chayanov for both Russia and the world. It is argued here that Chayanov’s models of social development provide an optimal conceptual frame to understand the contemporary contradictions between the town and village, industry and agriculture, the peasantry and the capitalist state. Furthermore, we question whether and to what extent Chayanov’s harmonious utopia has been achieved in Russia.