Possibility to Detect Glycemia with Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Non-invasive Glycemic Monitoring System
Two versions of the mathematical model that detect different glycemia cases using heart rate variability (HRV) values taking into account the patient age have been developed and evaluated. HRV and glucose data have been obtained from 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Based on the evaluation results, the fundamental possibility of developing a non-invasive glycemia monitoring system based on one of the model variants has been confirmed. To increase the accuracy of the model, it is necessary to conduct a similar study involving patients without annotated type 2 diabetes.
Two versions of the mathematical model that detect different glycemia cases using heart rate variability (HRV) values taking into account the patient age have been developed and evaluated. HRV and glucose data have been obtained from 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Based on the evaluation results, the fundamental possibility of developing a non-invasive glycemia monitoring system based on one of the model variants has been confirmed. To increase the accuracy of the model, it is necessary to conduct a similar study involving patients without annotated type 2 diabetes.
This article provides a review of literature data about the effect of social relations and interactions between people in different contexts on the body’s somatoautonomic indices. It has been demonstrated that electrodermal resistance, electrodermal response, as well as heart rate variability and respiration variability are physiological indicators of social relations and personal interactions. Changes in these indices in different social contexts may reflect the empathic abilities of people and their prosocial skills as well as correlate with the efficiency of cooperative and competitive activities and the psychological characteristics of social behaviour. Further, the paper presents the findings that reveal synchronization of the somatoautonomic changes in interacting individuals, such as mother and child, psychotherapistand his client, or in cooperating people and those watching a film together. A number of studies indicate gender- and age-related differences in the changes in somatoautonomic indices in response to socially significant factors, which can be explained by the socio-emotional selectivity theory. Moreover, the review provides data on the association between the psychological characteristics, level of social anxiety and autonomic change profiles, differing in terms of prevalence of the activity of the parasympathetic or sympathetic systems, as well as on a possible inheritance of these features. In addition, studies are considered indicating that the parasympathetic loop and cortical-subcortical structures of the brain, especially its prefrontal areas, cingulate cortex, amygdala, and others play a leading role in the involvement of the autonomic components into the system of social behaviour in humans. It should be pointed out that investigations into the physiological basis of social relations are important due to a significant influence of social factors on the psychosomatic health in humans and due to the necessity of increasing the efficiency of teamwork as well as improving group learning and family environment.
Cardiac activity is involved in the processes of organization of goal-directed behaviour. Each behavioural act is aimed at achieving an adaptive outcome and it is subserved by the actualization of functional systems consisting of elements distributed across the brain and the rest of the body. This paper proposes a system-evolutionary view on the activity of the heart and its variability. We have compared the irregularity of the heart rate, as measured by sample entropy (SampEn), in behaviours that are subserved by functional systems formed at different stages of individual development, which implement organism-environment interactions with different degrees of differentiation. The results have shown that SampEn of the heart rate was higher during performing tasks that included later acquired knowledge (foreign language vs. native language; mathematical vocabulary vs. general vocabulary) and decreased in the stress and alcohol conditions, as well as at the beginning of learning. These results are in line with the hypothesis that irregularity of the heart rate reflects the properties of a set of functional systems subserving current behaviour, with higher irregularity corresponding to later acquired and more complex behaviour.
Purpose: is to try and to show the opportunities and prospects of wearable technologies in the performance management and HR practice.
Approach: the study combines HRV monitoring data, KPI data and psychological diagnostics data. Among the indicators of HRV, the stress index is one of the most informative for characterizing the stress states of the central nervous system. The stress index was monitored in real time using a wearable device (Alpatov, Kuryshev, 2016) during the working day. Changes in performance indicators were also monitored during the working day at 30-minute intervals. Personal anxiety of employees (Charles D. Spielberger test in the adaptation of Y. L. Khanin) and involvement ("Test of Resilience" in the modification of E. N. Osin, E. I. Rasskazova) were also assessed.
Findings. Evaluations of the relationship between HRV indicators and objective indicators of the working process and psychological diagnostics data are presented.
Implications for practice. The original methodology of organizational and psychological research with the use of wearable technologies is presented, as well as the practical possibilities of using such technologies in organizational practice.
The results were interpreted for four subgroups of employees depending on the level of KPI (low or high) and the level of personal anxiety (low or high). For each subgroup recommendations for performance manager are given.
A subgroup of employees with high KPI and high personal anxiety unites employees who are able to act as agents of task performance control. Employees with high KPI and low personal anxiety are a stable work resource within the business process. Employees with low KPI and high personal anxiety are united by the need for a mentor (coach). Employees with low KPI and low personal anxiety are ready to leave the organization
In the paper a method of determination the driver's psycho-emotional state parameters is described. The determination is performed in time domain on the basis of a non-linear integral electrocardiosignal analysis. It is proposed to generate a threshold level dynamically for increase the reliability of time samples parameters determination, taking into account the value of the signal's variation coefficient.