Project Management Methodology: Third-Order Cybernetics Approach
The modern world is project-oriented. Social, research, business, government – different kinds of activities in different areas can be characterized as projects. Project is a set of actions limited by time, budget, resources, technical specifications aimed at customer satisfaction. Project management is a strong and rapidly developing profession with a high level of standardization. There are some world-wide project management methodologies such as traditional described in PMBOK standard ( Project Management Body of Knowledge, developed by the PMI Project Management Institute) and ISO 21500, and Agile methodology (Agile manifesto), which includes four points: people and interaction are more important than processes and tools, a working product is more important than comprehensive documentation, cooperation with the customer is more important than coordination of contract conditions, readiness for changes is more important than following the initial plan. Agile is focused on team work, quality of result, the relation to the customer, adaptation at modification of process in designing a product. Agile methods is a set of consecutive actions aimed at product development, focused on the use of iterative interaction, dynamic requirements formation and ensuring their implementation as a result of constant work within self-organizing working groups consisting of specialists of different profiles. There is a wide range of different Agile methodologies and their types. For example, Scrum, Extreme Programming, Kanban, Lean Software Development. Project management methodology is in the process of transformation from traditional toward Agile methodology which has to be analyzed based on third-order cybernetics approach.