Среднее профессиональное образование в условиях пандемии: международная практика
Policymakers in developing countries have prioritized the mass expansion of vocational education and training (VET). Evidence suggests, however, that the quality of VET can be poor. One possible reason given by policymakers for this is a lack of resources per student. The goal of this study is to examine whether the quality of VET in developing countries increases by investing greater resources per student. To achieve this goal, we examine the impacts of attending model schools (which have far more resources per student) compared with non-model schools (which have fewer resources) on a range of student cognitive, non-cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Using representative data from a survey of approximately 12,000 VET students from China, multivariate regression and propensity score matching analyses show that there are no significant benefits, in terms of student outcomes, from attending model vocational high schools, despite their substantially greater resources.
Upgrading skill formation has become an increasingly urgent task for societies facing the challenges of rapid technological change and globalization. However, reform of systems of vocational education and training (VET) poses severe challenges for aligning the interests of schools, firms, households, and governments, even in societies with relatively efficient markets for labor and education. Where market institutions are poorly developed, these challenges are particularly acute, resulting in endemic mismatches between the supply and demand of skill. Currently governments in many countries, including the United States, Russia, and China, are seeking to adopt elements of the German dual education model. The Russian federal government has undertaken several initiatives designed to upgrade VET by encouraging closer cooperation of vocational schools and firms at the regional level, including the adoption of dual education programs. This paper focuses on one such project: a 2013 pilot program administered by the Russian Agency for Strategic Initiatives, to foster the development of new models of dual education. The paper compares the 13 pilot regions with regions that submitted proposals but were not selected and with all other regions along multiple economic, social, demographic, and institutional dimensions. The findings suggest hypotheses about the conditions that enabled the pilot regions to take advantage of federal policies encouraging the adoption of dual education. More generally, the paper sheds light on institutional solutions to collective action dilemmas in skill formation in transitional and developing societies.
Taking into account money and other resources invested into massive open online courses (MOOCs) production universities face a challenge of MOOCs integration into higher and further professional education. Is university able to warrant its investments into MOOCs? What decisions should a university consider: selling certificates to MOOC completers, launching chargeable MOOC specializations or online degree programs? How to adapt MOOCs to the needs of a broad audience so that both on-campus students and international learners could benefit from it including these courses into their individual curricula? Tomsk State University (TSU) works in an effort to solve this problem. This paper is devoted to the model of organizing e-learning in a classical university basing on MOOCs and its integration into the system of lifelong education, as well as to the steps of maintaining this complex process in the framework of current trends in e-learning.
Around the world, governments, educators and employers have expressed growing interest in German-style methods of technical and vocational education and training (TVET). In such countries, schools and firms share responsibility for providing technical and vocational education, a model often called the ‘dual system of vocational training and education.’ The dual system means that occupational training occurs at two linked sites, educational institutions and workplaces. Dual education aims at matching the demands of a dynamically changing economy with the skill profiles of those graduating from educational institutions. To a large extent, dual education systems enable young people to acquire not simply technical and occupational skill, but broadly defined competencies that serve as the foundation for rewarding careers and social esteem. Little wonder that many countries have turned with renewed interest to the dual TVET system. However, actual implementation of the dual system outside the core Germanic countries in Europe has proven to be extremely challenging. Successful examples of institutional transplantation are rare. However, in some countries, local partnerships embracing elements of dual education have formed, uniting educational institutions, government entities and firms in partnerships to upgrade TVET. This paper discusses some of the characteristic patterns of such partnerships in the U.S.
This article is devoted to the issue of developing adaptive learning systems for vocational education and training (VET). Firstly, it justifies the urgency of developing and using personalized adaptive learning in vocational educational organizations. Specific features of the Russian VET system and its students are described, demonstrating a number of arguments for the importance of a search for new digital educational solutions. Secondly, the paper elaborates on the theoretical framework of personalization of vocational education and training, which takes into account the necessity for both skills and knowledge. Finally, the authors present a prototype of an adaptive educational system, which is based on ontologically-controlled management of learning trajectories. The developed software is aimed at improving the effectiveness of the VET material science curriculum.