Some results of a comparative study of modernization in two Islamic countries, Iran and Turkey, are presented in the article. A number of controversial issues are addressed. Firstly, among the factors impeding modernization the relationship between the role of culture and that of management is considered. In other words, was this the specificity of the Islamic civilization, or rather the quality of the reforms themselves that hindered modernization in a number of Islamic countries largely? Secondly, what was the role that sociocultural and political competencies of society played for successful modernization through radical economic reforms, the author questions. Positive assessment of Ataturk’s reforms in Turkey, on the one hand, and the failure of Iran's White Revolution, on the other hand, are discussed helping the reader answer the questions raised.