Is Artificial Intelligence Essential to People, Organization, and Society?
Nowadays, artificial intelligence (AI) can be considered as a set of technological solutions which are at the stage of active development, and it has already been successfully used in many industries, economics sectors, and companies. AI techniques include data mining, database, machine learning, pattern recognition and knowledge discovery. This paper deals with the issues of advantages and constraints of Artificial Intelligence implementations. It is theoretical and empirical study in equal measure. The research is based on literature review, analysis of large volumes of information, the author’s own experience and findings of investigation in this field. The main goal of this paper is the analysis of the domains of AI applications to support the processes in economy and management and identification the key constraints in this field. The problem the author considers with here is: Where and how can we successfully use the advantages of complex AI systems and what are the main ethical and technological challenges of AI implementation.
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The paper analyses some legal issues of artificial intelligence. In the first part of the paper authors provide classification and overview of the interdisciplinary research in this field. The next part of the paper illustrates artificial intelligence legal issues and provides approaches to mitigate these challenges. In particular, authors examine artificial intelligence influence on the protection of personal data, intellectual property rights and civil liability. The authors conclude that the development of artificial intelligence requires a change in the legal framework.
This article describes modern methods of data processing regarding the task of assessing activities of transportation employees. The main purpose was to find dependencies in data and construct an algorithm for predicting the probability of transport safety violation by employee. The research was conducted for locomotive drivers. The following algorithms were used: neural networks, gradient boosting over decision trees and random forest. Based on the obtained results and drawn conclusions one can think of the perspective for the elaboration and introduction this work for practical use in railway industry, e.g. in “Russian Railways”.
We compared the ability of various empirical methods to reproduce public credit ratings (PCRs) of industrial companies (ICs) from BRICS countries using publicly available information. This task is important for researchers and practitioners because many of BRICS’ ICs lack PCRs from reputable rating agencies such as Moody’s, Standard and Poor’s, and Fitch. This paper aimed at filling the gap in the existing research as insufficient efforts were focused on prediction of PCRs of ICs from the entire BRICS IC community. The modeled variables are credit ratings (CRs) of 208 BRICS’ ICs assigned by Moody’s at the year-end from 2006 to 2016. The sample included 1217 observations. Financial explanatory variables included companies’ revenue, operating profitability, interest coverage ratio, debt/book capitalization, and cash flow debt coverage. Non-financial explanatory variables included dummies for home region, industry, affiliation with the state, and a set of macroeconomic data of IC’s home countries. The set of statistical methods included linear discriminant analysis (LDA), ordered logit regression (OLR), support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN), and random forest (RF). The resulting models were checked for in-sample and out-of-sample predictive fit. Our findings revealed that among considered methods of artificial intelligence models (AI), SVM, ANN, and RF outperformed LDA and OLR by predictive power. On testing sample, AI gave on average 55% of precise results and up to 99% with an error within one rating grade; RF demonstrated the best outcome (58% and 100%). Conversely, LDA and OLR on average gave only 37% of precise results and up to 70% with an error within one grade. LDA and OLR also gave higher share of Type I errors (overestimation of ratings) than that of AI. Therefore, AI should have higher practical application than DA and OLR for predicting the ratings of BRICS ICs
The purpose of the paper is to determine the perspectives of diversification of educational services in the conditions of industry 4.0 on the basis of artificial intelligence (AI) training, determine the consequences of this process for academic and teaching staff and to develop recommendations for its practical implementation.
In November 2014, Team DESCARTES led by Newton Lee and sponsored by the Institute for Education, Research, and Scholarships (IFERS) was among one of the 104 teams registered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for the first-ever Cyber Grand Challenge (CGC). Only 28 teams, including Team DESCARTES, made it through two DARPA-sponsored dry runs and into the CGC Qualifying Event in June 2015. We proposed a system—Distributed Expert Systems for Cyber Analysis, Reasoning, Testing, Evaluation, and Security (DESCARTES)—that would be a fully autonomous cyber defense system that is capable of autonomous analysis, autonomous patching, autonomous vulnerability scanning, autonomous service resiliency, and autonomous network defense.
Logical frameworks allow the specification of deductive systems using the same logical machinery. Linear logical frameworks have been successfully used for the specification of a number of computational, logics and proof systems. Its success relies on the fact that formulas can be distinguished as linear, which behave intuitively as resources, and unbounded, which behave intuitionistically. Commutative subexponentials enhance the expressiveness of linear logic frameworks by allowing the distinction of multiple contexts. These contexts may behave as multisets of formulas or sets of formulas. Motivated by applications in distributed systems and in type-logical grammar, we propose a linear logical framework containing both commutative and non-commutative subexponentials. Non-commutative subexponentials can be used to specify contexts which behave as lists, not multisets, of formulas. In addition, motivated by our applications in type-logical grammar, where the weakenening rule is disallowed, we investigate the proof theory of formulas that can only contract, but not weaken. In fact, our contraction is non-local. We demonstrate that under some conditions such formulas may be treated as unbounded formulas, which behave intuitionistically.