Исчезло ли время в физике? Аргументы за и против блок-вселенной
To overcome the difficulties in studying the concept of time, the author proposes to analyze philosophical concepts and scientific theories from the point of view of two aspects of time that are not reducible to each other. These are: metric time and development time. It is shown that the division of time into two aspects is based on the philosophical tradition and helps to overcome the contradictions between the “frozen” time of the special theory of relativity and the observed “arrows of time” in cosmology, quantum mechanics and thermodynamics. A number of arguments in favor of the popular philosophical concept of the block universe based on the equations of the special theory of relativity are analyzed. These arguments are shown to be based solely on the metric aspect of time. Arguments in favor of the informational nature of development time are considered.
The study investigates the foundations of different conjunctions of conscious experience, some of which form the structure of conscious in general and the others define the structure of specific objects. Rethinking subjectivity as a condition for the possibility of consciousness and cognition, the author opens the pre-conscious dimension of the self and shows that it is the relation of conscious representations to the pre-conscious results of receptivity that determines the structural peculiarities of phenomena. The process of cognition is understood as conciliation of the conscious level of subjectivity and the pre-conscious one that influences the consciousness. The understanding of the general way of cognition makes it possible to deduce the basic structures of consciousness (infinity, spatiality, temporality, causality, etc.), and to see the role that each of them plays in the organization of experience. The approach allows author to clarify the structure-forming grounds of the phenomenon of life and the related phenomena such as the phenomena of birth and death, the phenomenon of doppelganger, mythological ideas of androgynous or twin progenitors, etc.
Since the basic structures of the conscious world undergo significant modifications depending on the cognitive attitude (one of the possible ways of harmonizing the conscious and the pre-conscious “data”), it becomes comprehensible the existence of different epochs of cognition, each of which has its own set of interrelated representations – spatial, temporal and causal, aesthetic and others.
The analysis allows us to see that consciousness is not structurally unchangeable, that its form, as well as its content, is a renewable result of an unpredictable and complex process of cognition, realized not only on the conscious level but also on the pre-conscious one.