Расширенный экологический подход к задачам управления
The concept of Umwelt introduced by J. von Uexküll is important not only for biosemiotics, but also for the development of cybernetics, general system theory, and management theory. Umwelt is not just an environment of a living organism, but also a certain cut of reality, a subjective world of perception and action of the organism. This concept is connected with concepts of ecological niche, negative feedback, homeostasis, and mobile equilibrium, as well as the concept of sustainable development. The semiotic turn in the life sciences and in cognitive science influences the management theory. In it, such conceptual tendencies as constructivism, active adaptation, the choice of possible and preferable futures, and the extended ecological approach are methodologically significant.