Языковое конструирование образовательной политики и история советского образования: пролегомены к теме
This chapter is focused on ideologically charged concepts and their changing meanings in discourses used to formulate goals and tasks of the Soviet educational politics. Such the concepts could be of pre-Revolutionary origin. For instance, a word ‘life’ as an element of the Soviet ideological phrase “convergence of school with life” (“sblizhenie shkoly s zhizn’ju”) can be traced back to the Nitzschean discourses in Russian culture of the beginning of the 20th century that had influenced pre-Revolutionary pedagogic works, like the papers by Stanislav Shatsky. During the 1920s—1970s, a number of new concepts was coined in the Soviet public sphere, and some existing concepts changed their meanings many times – or, to be more precise, there were the huge battles between the actors of Soviet educational field (in a Pierre Bourdieu’s sense of a word ‘field’) for one’s right to endow these concepts with one’s own meanings. All these processes can be studied, as we argue, with two main methods that have never previously been used for studying history of Soviet education – namely, history of concepts or 'Begriffsgeschichte' (in its versions of Cambridge school and Reinhart Koselleck) and discursive theory of hegemony by E. Laclau and Ch. Mouffe.