Imageries and historical change in the European Russian Arctic
This chapter focuses on imageries and historical change in the European Russian Arctic.
Effect of climate change on the populations of commercial fish is widely recognized. However, this recognition is currently insufficient and climate parameters are not incorporated into fishery forecasting models. Major fisheries of northern Russia targeting Alaska pollock, Pacific salmon in the North Pacific, and Atlantic cod in the Barents Sea are now in a good shape and showing record catches. This review discusses how climate change should be taken into account in the management of northern fish stocks in Russia. Given that climate conditions are currently favorable for these fisheries, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of management system and predict how it will behave under less favorable climatic situation. Climate change might play a positive role in short-term perspective, but its role may be even negative in long-term perspective because of the possibility that the management system might lose its effectiveness in favorable conditions. To reduce risks for commercial fish stocks, it is necessary to incorporate an ecosystem-based approach in the management. One opportunity for that is provided by the program of ecological certification of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) which became well established in Russia during the last decade. Without any support from the state, participants of the MSC program educate fishers, fishery managers, and governmental officers towards the use of ecosystem-based approach, specially accounting for the effect of climate change on northern Russian fisheries.
In present study, the analyses of essential [copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn)] and nonessential elements [mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As)] in 7 fish species consumed by the indigenous people of the European Russia Arctic were conducted. The Nenets Autonomous Region, which is located in the north-eastern part of European Russia, was chosen as a Region of interest. Within it, the Nenets indigenous group (n ¼ 6000) constitutes approximately 10% of the total population. Nearly all of the Nenets live a traditional life with fish caught in the local waters as a subsistence resource. We found that northern pike contained twice the amount of Hg compared with roach, and 3e4 times more than other fish species commonly consumed in the Russian Arctic (namely, Arctic char, pink salmon, navaga, humpback whitefish and inconnu). Fish Hg concentrations were relatively low, but comparable to those reported in other investigations that illustrate a decreasing south-to-north trend in fish Hg concentrations. In the current study, northern pike is the only species for which Hg bioaccumulated significantly. In all fish species, both Cd and Pb were present in considerably lower concentrations than Hg. The total As concentrations observed are similar to those previously published, and it is assumed to be present primarily in non-toxic organic forms. All fish tissues were rich in the essential elements Se, Cu and Zn and, dependent on the amount fish consumed, may contribute significantly to the nutritional intake by indigenous Arctic peoples. We observed large significant differences in the molar Se/Hg ratios, which ranged from 2.3 for northern pike to 71.1 for pink salmon. Values of the latter 1 appear to enhance the protection against Hg toxicity. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Arctic territory today is the most perspective territory for oil and gas companies. It is not only resource based or in other words, Arctic boarding countries that should engage in arctic exploration as it requires completely new technological advancement, calling for intense attention to its field development. Following the USGC research developed in 2008 year, more than 80% of perspective Arctic territories are located in offshore. This fact inevitably conveys technical and legislative risks which are not experienced onshore or conventional offshore fields. Technical risks are associated with severe climate conditions, sensitive ecological situation and a lack of field development experience on these territories. Legislative risks depend on the arctic country in question. Legislative also include taxation system that directly affects the efficiency of field development. All this makes it actual to study technical and legislative risks associated with arctic offshore field development. Practically, the work consists of two parts: analysis of influence of technical risks and legislative risks (including taxation system) on field development in different Arctic Seas and two cases in Russian Barents Sea and Norwegian Barents Sea were studied. Analysis of technical and legislative risks in these countries are determined by similar conditions of state participation and strategic meaning of Arctic territories for both countries. In the frame of technical analysis risk classification system according to different Arctic Sea conditions was worked out. Probability for each technical risk was assessed in expert way and included in the field development project evaluation, which in turn was made using real option valuation and stochastic modeling approaches. In order to receive synergetic effect, valuation model of filed development with technical risks were then incorporated into economic model, which includes legislative restriction and taxation. These conditions differ according to territory in Russia which is the opposite in Norway, allowing us to create territories with similar climatic conditions and geological perspective, analyzing technical and legislative risks.
The role of the Arctic on the global geopolitical arena rose during the Cold War. With time, political rivalry gave the way to regional cooperation, but the Arctic remains a highly politicized area. In the twenty-first century, Arctic states waded into the ‘Arctic Rush’ for natural resources and political supremacy. Their geopolitical interests affect significantly the development of Arctic tourism. At present, the Arctic is in the foreground of Russian political agenda. It resulted in the rising interest in Arctic tourism as a means of promoting strategic and economic value of the Arctic. Current paper focuses on the case of the National Park ‘Russian Arctic’. Based on expert interviews, the results of the study reveal how political circumstances influence Arctic tourism development. Four aspects related to political context were identified: increased militarization, access restrictions, political tensions between Russia and global community, and interest of non-Arctic players in the region’s potential.
The third volume of the series " The islands and archipelagos of the Russian Arctic " is dedicated to the history, cultural heritage and natural environment of the northern archipelago of the Russian Arctic - Franz Josef Land. It is based on the results of years (since 1990) studies the Marine Arctic Complex Expedition belonged by Polar Research Foundation and the Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage. Materials on historical experiments recreating the conditions and circumstances of polar expeditions are presented. First diaries of members of foreign missions to the Franz Josef Land are published.
This book presents the results of analysis of human capital in Murmansk and Archangelsk regions, republics of Komi and Karelia, and Nenets Autonomous Region. The authors considered migration processes and their trends; some of these were analyzed at municipal level. Having taken in account the importance of life expectancy as a complex indicator of sustainable development, the authors identified the periods of its growth and decline. Age-specific differences were also scrutinized. The relative contributions of major causes of mortality in life expectancy at birth were estimated. The authors described the dynamics of population of small indigenous peoples of the North (Vepsians, Nenets, Komi), the problems associated with their self-identification, census administration, migration, childbirth and life expectancy. The authors analyzed climate change as the new health risk factor, which affects safety of food and drinking water, accessibility of medical services and specific practices of deer-herding. A separate chapter of the book is devoted to current and future trends in working-age population until 2002. Each territory of Barents Sea Region displayed its own peculiar behavior of this indicator. The authors compared selected social, economic and demographic indicators in European part of Russian Arctic with those in foreign countries which belong to Barents Sea Region. This monograph was a product of collaborative efforts of the researchers from Economic Forecasting Institute and Institute of Demography of Higher School of Economics. B. A. Revich, Doctor of Medicine, and B. N. Porfiryev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, edited this book.