Imageries and historical change in the European Russian Arctic
This chapter focuses on imageries and historical change in the European Russian Arctic.
The importance of the Northern Sea Route is not in trying to make it a new Suez Canal, but in giving a boost to the development of service industries (mainly high-tech industries) and adjacent regions, as well as in opening one more window of opportunity for Russia’s integration into the global world.
Arctic territory today is the most perspective territory for oil and gas companies. It is not only resource based or in other words, Arctic boarding countries that should engage in arctic exploration as it requires completely new technological advancement, calling for intense attention to its field development. Following the USGC research developed in 2008 year, more than 80% of perspective Arctic territories are located in offshore. This fact inevitably conveys technical and legislative risks which are not experienced onshore or conventional offshore fields. Technical risks are associated with severe climate conditions, sensitive ecological situation and a lack of field development experience on these territories. Legislative risks depend on the arctic country in question. Legislative also include taxation system that directly affects the efficiency of field development. All this makes it actual to study technical and legislative risks associated with arctic offshore field development. Practically, the work consists of two parts: analysis of influence of technical risks and legislative risks (including taxation system) on field development in different Arctic Seas and two cases in Russian Barents Sea and Norwegian Barents Sea were studied. Analysis of technical and legislative risks in these countries are determined by similar conditions of state participation and strategic meaning of Arctic territories for both countries. In the frame of technical analysis risk classification system according to different Arctic Sea conditions was worked out. Probability for each technical risk was assessed in expert way and included in the field development project evaluation, which in turn was made using real option valuation and stochastic modeling approaches. In order to receive synergetic effect, valuation model of filed development with technical risks were then incorporated into economic model, which includes legislative restriction and taxation. These conditions differ according to territory in Russia which is the opposite in Norway, allowing us to create territories with similar climatic conditions and geological perspective, analyzing technical and legislative risks.
The article considers the conditions of developing the aviation industry for long-term prospects taking into account factors such as changes in purchasing aviation equipment, progress in developing the Russian aviation market, and works for reconstructing and modernizing transport infrastructure in the Russian Arctic. The author aims to coordinate the Government programs for developing new aviation equipment and equipment for air transport via the program of Arctic Exploration and Development, as it is necessary to integrate various cycle flows with regard to high-tech capital.
The third volume of the series " The islands and archipelagos of the Russian Arctic " is dedicated to the history, cultural heritage and natural environment of the northern archipelago of the Russian Arctic - Franz Josef Land. It is based on the results of years (since 1990) studies the Marine Arctic Complex Expedition belonged by Polar Research Foundation and the Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage. Materials on historical experiments recreating the conditions and circumstances of polar expeditions are presented. First diaries of members of foreign missions to the Franz Josef Land are published.
Effect of climate change on the populations of commercial fish is widely recognized. However, this recognition is currently insufficient and climate parameters are not incorporated into fishery forecasting models. Major fisheries of northern Russia targeting Alaska pollock, Pacific salmon in the North Pacific, and Atlantic cod in the Barents Sea are now in a good shape and showing record catches. This review discusses how climate change should be taken into account in the management of northern fish stocks in Russia. Given that climate conditions are currently favorable for these fisheries, it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of management system and predict how it will behave under less favorable climatic situation. Climate change might play a positive role in short-term perspective, but its role may be even negative in long-term perspective because of the possibility that the management system might lose its effectiveness in favorable conditions. To reduce risks for commercial fish stocks, it is necessary to incorporate an ecosystem-based approach in the management. One opportunity for that is provided by the program of ecological certification of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) which became well established in Russia during the last decade. Without any support from the state, participants of the MSC program educate fishers, fishery managers, and governmental officers towards the use of ecosystem-based approach, specially accounting for the effect of climate change on northern Russian fisheries.
Historically, extreme remoteness and cold have left the Bering Strait region sparsely populated and economically undeveloped. Costs are very high and infrastructure is minimal. Economies are undeveloped, and based primarily on mining and government. Population densities are very low. A high proportion of residents are Natives for whom subsistence hunting and fishing remain important sources of food. In the future, environmental, economic, political and technological factors are likely to bring increased economic activity to the region—although the timing and scale of future economic change are difficult to predict. Economic activities most likely to grow include marine transportation; onshore and offshore mineral and hydrocarbon development; land-based and cruise ship tourism; commercial fishing; and government services and infrastructure needed to support economic and population growth. The nature, timing and scale of growth will depend on a wide range of factors including change in ice conditions, the extent of future resource discoveries; and the extent to which governments make development of the region an economic and strategic priority. Significant economic activities in the Bering Strait region for which shared governance issues are currently or likely to become important include marine subsistence, marine transportation, offshore oil and gas development, commercial fishing, and cruise ship tourism.
This book presents the results of analysis of human capital in Murmansk and Archangelsk regions, republics of Komi and Karelia, and Nenets Autonomous Region. The authors considered migration processes and their trends; some of these were analyzed at municipal level. Having taken in account the importance of life expectancy as a complex indicator of sustainable development, the authors identified the periods of its growth and decline. Age-specific differences were also scrutinized. The relative contributions of major causes of mortality in life expectancy at birth were estimated. The authors described the dynamics of population of small indigenous peoples of the North (Vepsians, Nenets, Komi), the problems associated with their self-identification, census administration, migration, childbirth and life expectancy. The authors analyzed climate change as the new health risk factor, which affects safety of food and drinking water, accessibility of medical services and specific practices of deer-herding. A separate chapter of the book is devoted to current and future trends in working-age population until 2002. Each territory of Barents Sea Region displayed its own peculiar behavior of this indicator. The authors compared selected social, economic and demographic indicators in European part of Russian Arctic with those in foreign countries which belong to Barents Sea Region. This monograph was a product of collaborative efforts of the researchers from Economic Forecasting Institute and Institute of Demography of Higher School of Economics. B. A. Revich, Doctor of Medicine, and B. N. Porfiryev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, edited this book.