Общие сведения о мокшанском языке и исследуемом говоре
The volume includes proceedings of the 23th Scandianvian Conference of Linguistics (SCL 23) that was held at Uppsala University 1–3 October 2008. It includes studies covering a wide spectrum of approaches to linguistics, for example, cross-linguistic typological studies, linguistic variation and language change in contact situations as well as studies relating to bilingualism and to second and foreign language learning.
Language contacts have been extensively studied linguistically and sociolinguistically. This paper argues that cross-cultural analysis of language transfer can also prove useful in contact linguistics. One of the latest borrowings from English into Russian, the semantic calque vyzov vyzovy (‘challenge/challenges’) used often in the cliche´ ugrozy i vyzovy (‘threats and hallenges’), makes certain shifts in the Russian world view traceable. Challenge, a key word in English, is untranslatable into Russian and the trite Russian translation equivalent for challenge – problema (‘problem’) reveals important differences between the two cultures: the Anglophone (especially, American) linguaculture, whose dominant values are individual success and activity, competitiveness, positive thinking, sense of adventure, etc., perceives difficulties as ‘‘stimuli’’ and conceptualizes them in terms of challenges; contrary to this, the Russian linguaculture, which is, if compared with the Western cultures, ‘‘being-oriented,’’ ‘‘relationship-oriented,’’ ‘passive’’ and ‘‘pessimistic,’’ encourages the discussion of difficulties in terms of problems. The borrowing of the concept challenge by extending the meaning of vyzov registers a shift of the Russian value system in the direction of increased agentivity, assertiveness, positivism, competitiveness, etc. Such borrowings are ‘‘challenges’’ rather than ‘‘threats’’ to the Russian language and culture and they call for a more in-depth linguacultural analysis of English–Russian interactions.
This article consider the linguistic aspect of language variability, references and is dedicated to the analysis of researches of linguists - dialectologists who describe influence of various languages on development of a language situation in the Spanish-speaking world, are contained examples of this influence on territories of Mexico and on a number of the countries of Latin America are given.
In Udi (Northeast Caucasian, Lezgic), the prenominal relative clause may be preceded by a genitive phrase referring, at first glance, to some of its arguments. It is proposed that this construction results from a borrowing from Azerbaijani, which, however, underwent reanalysis: the genitive phrase behaves as the possessor of the matrix nominal phrase and the relative clause appears to specify the possessive relation. The Udi data are further compared with data from a few other languages that display similar constructions.
The paper describes a corpus of dialectal Russian speech under development. The corpus relies on interviews conducted by a joint Swiss-Russian team in the summer of 2013 in a small cluster of North Russian villages with the goal of studying the local dialect from a sociolinguistic and dialectological perspective. The interviews are transcribed into standard Russian and thus do not involve a detailed phonetic representation. The text is then lemmatized and grammatically annotated with standard tools and fed into a corpus. The corpus can be queried via a web-based interface which provides the user with access to the original sound recordings on a per-utterance level. This design, the paper argues, allows for a rapid development of the corpus without a major loss in usability, since the audio data are readily available. Future plans include more field trips as well as a more convenient interface providing, among other features, for user correction of the transcription.
This paper is focused on territory pronunciation features of today's American English and its interrelation with other social factors.
The Ustja dialect belongs to the Vologda dialect group. The latter has a well documented realization of the etymological *ê as [i] between palatalized consonants, under stress. Among contemporary speakers, *ê in this context may be realized either as [i] (the dialectal variant) or as [e] (standard Russian). No speaker who only uses the dialectal variant has been recorded. The paper focuses on how particular wordforms and the speaker’s age correlate with the variation between the dialectal vs. standard realization.