Based on the results of all-Russian surveys, major effects of the economic crisis of 2014-2016 in comparison with other economic crises are characterized. It is demonstrated that in addition to their obvious consequences (prices increase, layoffs, etc.), another serious result is the change in relationship between employers and workers, accompanied by the increase in layoffs amid increase in workload of working population, decrease of wages amid rising prices, and significant increase in non-compliance with the law concerning rights of workers. In the periods between crises these negative changes are consolidated, and every next crisis gives them a new impetus
This volume discusses post-socialist urban transport functioning and development in Russia, within the context of the country’s recent transition towards a market economy. Over the past twenty-five years, urban transport in Russia has undergone serious transformations, prompted by the transitioning economy. Yet, the lack of readily available statistical data has led to a gap in the inclusion of Russia in the body of international transport economics research. By including ten chapters of original, cutting-edge research by Russian transport scholars, this book will close that gap. Discussing topics such as the relationship between urban spatial structure and travel behavior in post-soviet cities, road safety, trends and reforms in urban public transport development, transport planning and modelling, and the role of institutions in post-soviet transportation management, this book provides a comprehensive survey of the current state of transportation in Russia. The book concludes with a forecast for future travel development in Russia and makes recommendations for future policy. This book will be of interest to researchers in transportation economics and policy as well as policy makers and those working in the field of urban and transport planning.
The article highlights the results of comparison of socio-economic indicators major cities, and similar indicators of the rest regional territories.
The present textbook is intended for students preparing to study mathematics at a higher education institution, to prepare to pass the exam.