«Пища бессмертия» в представлениях древних иранцев
The article deals with the variants of “food of immortality” according to the Avestan and Middle Persian sources. The Old Iranian analog for the Old Greek designations of the “sacred food or drink of immortality” was a term, connected with the name of immortal holy deity and general notion of immortality – Avestan. amәrәtat- “immortality, eternity” and amәša- “immortal, never-dying”. The “food of immortality” in the earlier Iranian tradition, as in Old Greek mythology, appeared to be provided for gods. In the later Iranian tradition, in particular, in the Zoroastrian interpretations of afterlife of the righteous men, the “food of immortality” (MP anōš “immortal, amrita, elixir, antidote”, “mid spring butter” – MP mēdyōzarm rōγn, or “spring butter” – Avest. zaramaya raoγna-, cow’s butter, “white Haoma”), is introduced as a food, intended for all deceased righteous men, who are on the final stage of their stay in Paradise in anticipation of the “last” body. Beside this religious context the idea of “eating of the food of immortality” in the meaning of being ready “to put one’s life to risk” or “to fight to death” is represented in the Pahlavi text Ayādgār ī Zarērān, in which the king Vishtasp does not agree to renounce from the Mazdayasnian faith and promises to fight to death against the king of Khyons Arjasp (*abāg ašmā dudīgar māh anōš xwarēm) (AZ 18).