Понятие "вера" и его когнитивная трансформация в переводе на японский язык (на материале произведения Ф.М. Достоевского "Братья Карамазовы")
This article deals with metaphor studying in the light of cognitive linguistics. Metaphor modeling is used to research into metaphorization in English academic discourse in economics. The research focuses on the comparative analysis of metaphor at different levels of second language proficiency and professional competence.
The article deals with the semantic structure of the verb and its correlation with quality.
Cognitive Linguistics offers an enticing possibility to approach time-honored linguistic problems from a new standpoint and view them in a new dimension. Proving this theory, all contributions in this volume are Slavic-oriented and thoroughly grounded in the framework of Cognitive Linguistics. The volume is composed of three thematic sections – grammar, semantics and discourse analysis with applied linguistics – representing fields of interest and simultaneously corresponding to levels of linguistic organization. The book offers studies on completability as an important parameter in the description of the Russian aspect system, application of Langacker’s theory of subjectification to the analysis of Russian perfective, interaction between aspect and modality in Slavic, morphological case architecture in Slovak, Czech dative-marked nominals, Russian instrumental of comparison, affirmation, possessive-locative constructions in Macedonian, lexical semantics, spoken discourse, metaphorical expressions in legal language and lexicography.
The Topicality of the Research: 1. Choice is the core of all creating, and where there is no choice there is no ingenuity; intuition and creativity as the highest functions of human mind (brain) are not easily accessible to analysis but the complexity of this multidisciplinary task should not justify the refusal to solve it. 2. Developing the professional skills of making the appropriate linguistic decision while teaching the translation of foreign (in our case English) scientific texts (into Russian) is based on the detailed cognitive analysis of parallel political discourses that finally results in mastering the academic faculties of choosing the correct translation equivalent involving all the modern political background knowledge. 3. The functional cognitive comparison analysis of the linguistic units that require adequate interpretation is to reveal their contextual actualization, thus, demands the profound knowledge of both political terminology in the Russian and English languages and the current world political situation as a whole. The Translatological Background of the Study. 1. The idea of the given research is initially derived from our previous investigations of the translator’s intuition and creativity as well as our experimental attempts of the thesaurus modeling of human thinking that finally led to the original methodical algorithm of teaching ingenuity in the field of linguistics (practical translation). 2. Professor V.N. Komissarov was right to say in one of his scientific works that translators training programs should be based on a proper understanding and an objective description of the translating process. 3. We claim that • the inner picture of the outer world of each translator as well as the structure of his/her knowledge and associations is subjective and individual; • in case of general universals dominating in the structure of the translator’s knowledge (in his/her brain) the variant of translation finally chosen will be pattern-like (ordinary) while the original structure of knowledge presupposes the emergence of the original intuitive decision; • the task of a professional teacher of translating is obviously to stimulate the student’s ability to involve the so-called “weak associative links” provoking in this way the original creative translation decision. 4. In this connection, our methodical algorithm of ingenuity comprises the following steps: • there should be 3 students minimum in the group as the fewer students, the fewer versions of translation may be offered while we need the so-called “brain storming” to activate consciousness; • students should be taught contemplating their task and building their own mental program of considering the task set; • one should be taught to formulate the target clearly; • the teacher should train the skills of the unfolded logical operation of categorization; • one should be taught the skills of generalizing to see the whole image (cognitive frame) and then summing it up to be able to imagine its individual components (of the system) in order to activate the thinking thesaurus and the information stored in it (the holistic Geschtalt-principle suggested by M. Snell-Hornby is fulfilled in making “the fan” of individual concepts, elements of the image concrete and clearly seen); • one should be taught to analyze the least and less probable alternatives of the translator’s decisions using the method of morphological analysis (according to N. Ovchinnikov); • to teach (according to H. Altshuller, the author of the inventive TRIZ methodology) to formulate the ideal final result, in our case - the most acceptable final variant of translation. The Novelty of the Results Anticipated: 1. The research of language creativity is supposed to be carried out by the example of the discourse analysis of modern political terminology and other non-equivalent vocabulary within the bounds of political contexts while translating and comprehending foreign academic and scientific texts. 2. Our deepest conviction is that teaching linguistic creativity is possible. The inner picture of the outer world and the structure of each person’s knowledge and associations are subjective and individual; the original structure of knowledge presupposes the emergence of the original decision; the task of a professional teacher is to stimulate the student’s ability of involving “weak” associative links provoking the creative linguistic decision. 3. To activate consciousness and the information stored in the human brain students should be taught contemplating their task and building their own mental program of considering the task set; one should obligatory be taught to formulate the target clearly and to analyze all probable alternatives of language decisions. 4. The experience of reflexive thinking is necessary while searching for the right associative “prompt”, “push-stimulus” and theoretical “trigger-word” (such as “context”, “style”, “background”) leading to making the translator’s creative choice (often intuitively) that finally results in choosing the most acceptable variant of translation minding certain definite conscious methodological steps (the algorithm). 5. We believe that the cognitive (neurolinguistic) approach and methods may reveal the human brain zones responsible for making creative linguistic decisions provided the correct technical task has been worked out and the valid number of volunteers have been tested. The Prospects for the Investigation: 1. In the course of the research it has been planned to create an integrated parallel bilingual thesaurus (glossary) comprising some definite representative cases of the examined subject fields of linguistic (political) realities units usage. 2. The scientific performance of the experimental regular seminar is presupposed to be held at our University (in the frames of the “Scientific-Academic Group” project) studying the aspects of the contextual actualization of political notions in the English and Russian discourses by means of the comparative analysis aimed at professional explaining the motivation of the translation equivalent choice. 3. The algorithm of making up an associative thesaurus using the signs of lexical marking as a tool of political discourse analysis is to be taught at the multidisciplinary seminars.