Transaero: Turbulent Times
The main research objective of this study is to examine how two popular concepts – human security (HS) and sustainable development (SD) – interact with each other in the case of policy making on and implementation of developmental strategies of industrialized centers of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation (azrf). There are three specific purposes to this analysis: first, to evaluate the scope and focus of sustainable development strategies (including environmental programs) that are implemented by azrf cities, such as Arkhangelsk, Monchegorsk, Murmansk, Nickel, Norilsk, Salekhard, Severodvinsk, Vorkuta, and so forth; second, to find out whether these strategies are efficient or not and whether they improve the situation with regard to human security or not; and third, to understand whether these policies are of short-term/single-issue character or represent forward-looking strategies that are conducive to the sustainable socio-economic and environmental development of the northern urban areas.
This article provides a review of theses presented at the round table “The Strategy of Sustainable Development in the Context of 21st c. Political Processes,” held at the Lomonosov Moscow State University Department of Political Science in conjunction with the V International Scholarly Congress “Global Studies-2017” (Moscow, September 25-30, 2017). Participants focused on the complex of political, philosophical, social and economic problems connected with the “sustainable development” category.
In this article authors describe formation of the concept "soft power" and its place in the modern world. Authors come to a conclusion that tourism is that element of "the soft power" which can promote more effective and competent positioning of Russia as benevolent country. Today the tourism industry is a key milestone of applying "the soft power" concept, plunging in particular countries, in particular cultures, in particular national life, the tourist recreates a true picture of the events in the state. Authors note that the Russian Federation needs creation abroad of positive image, for the purpose of applying the "the soft power" concept in the solution of diplomatic questions. In turn, tourism is one of the main methods of the "the soft power" concept and in any a case it is impossible to diminish a tourism role in permission of international issues. Development of the tourism industry promotes not only to increase in a tourist stream and attraction of investments, but also allows creating a positive image of the country and its subjects in the opinion of foreign tourists. Investigating value of the "the soft power" concept, authors came to a conclusion that tourism represents a secret platform for realization of national and public interests on the international scene.
The existing conceptual treatment of the essence of sustainable socio-economic systems is specified by substantiating that these systems develop not only harmoniously in the aspect of balance of social, economic, and ecological development but also in a stable way in the aspect of low volatility of GDP per capita in current prices. This treatment is interesting from the scientific and practical points of view for development and implementation of state policy in the sphere of managing sustainable development of economy.
The authors of the monograph conducted a comprehensive analysis of the situation of single-industry towns of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). By a wide range of sources, the current socio-ecological and economic status of the mono-cities studied is determined.
Drawing on the results of two representative surveys (2014 and 2017) this paper presents data on the actual and the potential levels of Russians’ engagement in separate waste collection practices, the factors and the conditions for this. To date, only 4–5% of municipal waste is recycled, while most of the waste ends up in dumps, official or otherwise. Multiple attempts to introduce a system of separate waste collection in Soviet and post-Soviet times in various regions and population centers (waste paper collection in schools, separate containers for food waste and other garbage, stationary and mobile separated solid waste collection points, etc.) did not succeed. The population is often claimed to be the weak link in the social mechanism of this practice institutionalization. However, is this really the case? We apply a multinomial logit regression to evaluate the relative strength of different factors potentially explaining the division of individuals into separate groups defined by their attitudes to separate waste disposal. The results of the analysis show that although the potential of the enthusiastic pioneers has been virtually exhausted, the claims that the majority of Russians are not yet prepared to participate in these practices are not true. However, the potential participants tend to voice more complex demands with regard to the conditions enabling their participation in separate waste collection. The convenience factor (the proximity of garbage containers to people’s homes, adequate time for delivering particular types of waste to the collection points), which has been identified in the studies of evolving practices of separate waste collection, both in developed and developing countries, is also a key factor in Russia. The confidence in the effectiveness of personal efforts to alleviate the issue is also important: people believe that their endeavors are not in vain, the waste collected separately will be withdrawn in a timely and efficient manner, recycled, etc. Interestingly, cultural norms, social incentives and sanctions do not seem to play any significant role in this regard, nor do any material incentives or sanctions. We show that the practice of separate waste collection is mostly driven by prosocial motives, environmental concerns and responsibility. It is barely influenced by self-serving interests and, thus, falls within the realm of civil society practices. It can become another (accessible and straightforward) channel for exercising civic responsibility and independence. In conclusion, we discuss the future potential of the practices in question and measures to enhance Russians’ participation in separate waste collection.