Transaero: Turbulent Times
Economic growth in developing economies and the transition of large population groups to the middle class lead to a surge in energy consumption and hence in greenhouse gas emissions. The solution to such issues as poverty and inequality comes therefore into conflict with climate change mitigation. The existing international climate change regime does not address this contradiction. The existing international system of climate regulation does not address this contradiction. Today, the global climate governance relies on the estimates of aggregate emissions of countries not considering the level of development and the distribution of emissions among income groups within each country. Emissions from production are being monitored, while consumption-related emissions, albeit known be experts, rarely underlie decision-making. Meanwhile, income distribution has a higher impact on consumption-based emissions in comparison to the production-based ones. Decisions on the emission regulation are made at the national level by countries with different development agendas where the climate change mitigation often gets less priority in comparison to other socio-economic objectives.
The paper proposes a set of principles and specific mechanisms that can link both climate change and inequality within a single policy framework. Firstly, we highlight the importance of modification of the global emission monitoring system for the sake of accounting for emissions from consumption (rather than production) by income groups. Secondly, we suggest the introduction of a new redistribution system to address climate change including a "fine" imposed on households with the highest levels of emissions. Such a system follows the principles of progressive taxation but underlies climate mitigation objectives and can rather be treated not as taxation of high incomes but as payment for negative externality. Thirdly, we outline the need for adjustment of climate finance criteria: priority should be given to projects aimed at 1) reducing the carbon intensity of consumption of the social groups entering the middle class, and 2) at adaptation of the poorest population groups to the climate change. The special role in the implementation of these principles may belong to BRICS countries which could use it as a chance for proactive transition to the inclusive low-carbon development.
In the last 50 years, the biosphere, upon which humanity depends, has been altered to an unparalleled degree. The current economic model relying on fossil resources and addicted to “growth at all costs” is putting at risk not only life on our planet, but also the world’s economy. The need to react to the unprecedented COVID-19 crisis is a unique opportunity to transition towards a sustainable wellbeing economy centered around people and nature. After all, deforestation, biodiversity loss and landscape fragmentation have been identified as key processes enabling direct transmission of zoonotic infectious diseases. Likewise, a changing climate has profound implications for human health. Putting forward a new economic model requires transformative policies, purposeful innovation, access to finance, risk-taking capacity as well as new and sustainable business models and markets. But above all we need to address the past failure of our economy to value nature, because our health and wellbeing fundamentally depends on it. A circular bioeconomy offers a conceptual framework for using renewable natural capital to holistically transform and manage our land, food, health and industrial systems with the goal of achieving sustainable wellbeing in harmony with nature. Within the framework of the Sustainable Markets Initiative, under the leadership of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, a 10-Point Action Plan to create a circular bioeconomy is proposed below. The Action Plan is a response to The Prince of Wales’ call to invest in nature as the true engine for our economy. The Action Plan, guided by new scientific insights and breakthrough technologies, is articulated around six transformative action points further discussed below and four enabling action points, which mutually reinforce each other.
Recommendations for teachers on the organization of the educational process based on the case “Tigrus - more than business” and examples of its solution
Companies invest in sustainable development in more and more innovative ways through business model innovation which “offers a potential approach to deliver the required change through re-conceptualising the purpose of the firm and the value creating logic, and rethinking perceptions of value”. This chapter provides several demonstrative cases of Russian and international companies operating on the Russian market that have made attempts to become more competitive through the adoption of sustainable practices and business models. The circular economy involves a more meaningful use of resources aimed at applying the principles of the “green” economy and is characterized by new business models and approaches, as well as innovative business ideas. Business leaders are in constant search for a better way to hedge emerging risks and introduce new approaches and models that can effectively respond to the challenges faced by the world community on the verge of a new industrial revolution.
Sustainable development is a worldwide recognized social and political goal; it is discussed both in academic and political discourse. According to the authors, the formation of a new way of thinking will help to achieve this goal. A lot of research is related to sustainable development in higher education. However, mental models are formed even more effectively at school age. The paper was written in the context of Russia, where the subject of sustainable development in education is extremely poorly developed. The case of Ural Federal University was presented. The University has been working for several years on the creation of a device for the purification of sewage industrial water in the framework of an initiative student group. Recently, schoolchildren have joined this work. Such projects have been called university-to-school projects. Successful solution of inventive tasks contributes to the formation of mental models. The case has been analyzed in terms of institutionalism. The authors argued the primacy of mental institutions over normative in the process of sustainable society construction.
Sustainable Economy and Emerging Markets provides a snapshot of the different dimensions of sustainability and analyses how they interact and configure themselves, case by case, in selected emerging economies. The parameters of economic growth in developing economies are explored in the context of systems, climate change, and environmental challenges.
With contributions from a range of business academics, economists, and practitioners, this book conveys a picture of the complex nature of the new global business environment, especially the geopolitical dynamics of emerging countries, and breaks down the challenges across geographic fault lines, offering insights into current business practice. By adopting an in-depth case study approach, this edited book offers and discusses examples from several emerging markets and elucidates how these organisations have modelled business based on sustainable development in its various forms.
This book will prove valuable reading for students and scholars of international business, international trade, sustainability, and development.
Excluded from the urban policy discourse during Soviet period, historical centers of Russian cities are of interest to private developers today. The current development of these territories leads to the loss of valuable morphological characteristics which have been formed evolutionarily: lot configuration and size, building height and density, etc.
The attitudes of public authorities towards the maintenance of historical territories today mainly comes down to the preservation of listed heritage buildings. The status of historical settlements is a new tool in Russian heritage preservation policies. It allows the regulation of infill development parameters in historical areas and thereby protects the historic environment as an entity. Heritage preservation restrictions, however, are considered an obstacle for urban development since the logic of conservation is opposed to that of development. Public authorities, private developers and local residents have little to no resources and incentives to develop territories in accordance with the imposed restrictions.
This article argues that despite the strengths of these tools, it is not enough when territory revitalization is the goal. Existing regulations should be expanded by a set of incentive measures to stimulate the revitalization of historical urban cores and turn heritage into a capitalized asset.
The first part of the article is devoted to the theoretical underpinnings for elaborating an approach to the revitalization process. The authors appeal to urban morphology theory in order to determine the potential of historical environments. The second part is devoted to a review of best practices in the revitalization of historical centers. Third part of the article gives an overview of the current development practices of various stakeholders in the existing institutional context. The case of the historical center of Samara is used to illustrate the common phenomena.
Institutional economics is used to review the system of incentives and approaches to assessing the effects and to evaluate the contribution of various factors to the investment attractiveness of the territory and the development process as a whole.