Историческая память как фактор укрепления социальной сплоченности в малых сообществах (кейс-стади проекта «Усадьба "Хвалевское"» в Вологодской области)
Purpose. This study investigated the relationship between the socio-psychological factors and the three forms of organizational commitment (Meyer and Allen’s model) among Russian business organizations’ employees. Methodology. Socio-psychological factors were used as independent variables in the study while organizational commitment forms were used as the dependent variables. Data was gathered from a random sample of 90 employees (managers and specialists) of the various companies. A questionnaire consisting of two-parts was used for data collection. To gather biographical and occupational data first part was used. Second part of questionnaire included eight techniques: Social Support scale of «Work Design Questionnaire», «Group Cohesiveness Scale», «Trust in Organization Scale», «Survey of Perceived Organizational Support», «Distributive, Procedural, and Interactive Justice Scale», questionnaire for identify the perceived prestige of the organization. To measure organizational commitment, Meyer and Allen’s (1993) 18-item 7-point scale was used. Data analysis was done by means of various statistical techniques, including the Pearson Correlation Technique and Multiple Regression Analysis. The results indicated that there is positive correlation between affective and normative organizational commitment and social involvement in the organization, the level of group cohesion, and trust in the organization, the degree of positive perception of the external prestige of the organization, perceived organizational support, and organizational justice. Implication for practice. The paper therefore recommends that managers must to facilitate socio-psychological factors in their companies, but especially group cohesion and perceived prestige of the organization.
The studies of group cohesion and perceived integrity conducted by different researchers within the frame of two approaches to understanding group integrity problem are compared in the article. Causes and consequences of group integrity development are reviewed. The relationship between this construct and the efficiency of group activity are considered. The framework that comprises such widely used in social psychology concepts as group cohesion, group integrity and perceived group integrity is proposed.
We analyze the contexts of use of the category "people" in the Soviet and post-Soviet primary school textbooks. Empirical base of the research: 3 textbooks (1970-80-ies) and 12 textbooks (2001-2006). The analysis of the frequency of the use of the concept "people" in various meanings demonstrated: in Soviet textbooks the meanings "working people" and "co-citizenship" are dominated, in post - Soviet – “ethno-cultural community"."Ethnic groups" are mentioned in the Soviet textbooks only in the context of natural-climatic zones, with emphasis on economic specialization as "traditional" type of production. In the post-Soviet textbooks "ethnic groups" are mentioned in the civil and historical contexts. This includes the possibility and necessity of definite ethnic identification of the individual, the criteria of which are language, folklore, anthropological characteristics, mental warehouse. Approval of homogeneity of the group on the basis of these criteria leads to the approval of the homogeneity of the nation, as a nation as a political community is conceived in the modern textbooks as a developed form of the ethnic community. Such contexts are fixed through the approval of morality of the social order, which leads to the fixation of social hierarchy and to the spread of discriminatory practices against minorities.