Наставничество как практика социокультурной реабилитации детей-сирот и детей, оставшихся без попечения родителей. Социальное партнерство: педагогическая поддержка субъектов образования
Russia is undergoing a reform of its child welfare system. The general aim of the reform is deinstitutionalization. This implies fundamental changes at the ideological and institutional levels to redesign the system of residential care for children left without parental care and to develop a system of family placement. Based on expert interviews, the article examines the institutional logic of the reform implementation, presenting expert opinions on how care should be organized for children left without parental care in terms of ideals of care, as well as institutional structure (location of care, agents involved in care, and resources available to those agents). As a theoretical framework we use the neoinstitutional approach, in particular, the theory of social learning and the strategic interaction approach. The article identifies main players in the reform arena (state residentialinstitutions, NGOs, and foster families), as well as the discursive strategies they use to legitimize their role, action strategies, their ideas about children’s well-being, and ideas about how childcare should ideally be arranged. We identify three competing ideal care models: paternalistic, quasi-liberal, and familial. These models present paradigmatic directions of deinstitutionalization of care for children left without parental care, resulting from the current reforms the child welfare system.
This study examines the different perceptions about the role of mentors between youth who are at risk and institutionalized versus those who are family-based in the Russian Federation. The present study was conducted using a survey questionnaire with respondents between the ages of 15 and 23 in Moscow. Data analysis was conducted on 1,110 responses using Pearson’s chi-squared test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and t-test. Results indicate that youth who are institutionalized and at risk, more than their family-based peers, perceived the mentor to be their friend—a person with whom they can establish a close and trusting relationship. For respondents who were family-based, the mentor was perceived as a professional who taught them certain educational and vocational skills. The study also revealed the need for more attention to the psychosocial needs of youth at risk who are family-based. This has implications for the recruitment and training of mentors in the Russian Federation.
The article analyzes the activities of the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and their subordinate institutions for the post-internatal escort of orphans and children left without parental care, emphasizing the need to develop organizational mechanisms for inter-agency cooperation on post-internatal escorts. In our country, there is still a large number of orphans and children left without parental care, who leave the orphanages alone with themselves and face the insurmountable difficulties of adult life. In this regard, it is necessary to ensure the integration into society of pupils of orphanages and boarding schools through the organization of interdepartmental interaction between the executive authorities and institutions, combining all their resources into a single system of post-internatal support. These circumstances explain the relevance of the research topic. The article draws the main conclusions and suggestions for improving the activities of the subjects on post-internatal support of orphans and children left without parental care.