This paper outline one of the most essential concepts in the history of political thought. This is a concept of multitude. The history of this concept began in the Renaissance, when it was used by Niccolo Machiavelli in his philosophical works. In the Enlightment this concept was radically transformed by Thomas Hobbes, John Milton, Benedict Spinoza and etc. During this work we will consider the history of transformation of this concept.
Niccolo Machiavelli is considered to be one of the first thinkers who laid foundations of the “realist” approach inherent in the political theory of Modernity. However this study based on the contextualist approach of intellectual history demonstrates an alternative view. Analyzing several concepts of the language of “The Prince” that very likely allude to the traditions of humoral medicine, astrology, sympathetic magic and alchemy, I argue that in concern to “fox” and “lion” Machiavelli presumes not the imitation of their qualities, but rather elaborate “secret” doctrine or even “technique of the self” in Michel Foucault’s sense. According to my conclusion, “lion” and “fox” are images that a potential reader should have grasped exactly through the interplay of contexts (either more evident or “secret”) that he belonged to as a man of the Renaissance.
The chapter is dedicated to the problem of correlation of the ideology of Enlightenment and the practical implementation of the ideas of the philosophers in the politics and social life of Prussia and Russia.
This paper outlines the essential aspects of the Machiavelli’s religious concept. This theory was invented by Machiavelli in 16th century, and played a key role in the formation and development of the Reformation process in Germany. In this work we will try to rediscover Machiavelli’s religious concept, using work of some modern interpreters of his philosophical legacy.
This work is translation of one chapter of the main work of Italian thinker Maurizio Viroli. This chapter includes Machiavelli’s religious concept, what is very interesting for interpreters Machiavelli’s philosophy.