Functionalist sociologists have described professionalization as a positive and progressive force that fosters social change in ways that minimize social conflict and disintegration. The basis of professional practice was considered to be technical knowledge and the ideal of service. Early studies assumed a clear divide between the professions and occupations. Lists of traits were developed to distinguish the ideal type of a profession. The functionalist and traits approaches were criticized for their essentialist position. Conducted on microlevel, interactionist works focus on professional socialization in workplaces, relationships in the everyday life of occupations, and their meanings in working routine and in wider contexts. In the neo‐Weberian approach professionalization is seen as the project whereby a distinct occupational group seeks to gain a monopoly control of competence and credibility with the public and, as a result, to secure an increase in income, power, and prestige.
- Offers engaging debate surrounding leadership as a profession
- Includes contributions from a diverse number of experts
- Comprehensively illustrates the arguments for and against presenting leadership as a profession
This book presents a lively debate surrounding the professionalization of leadership. With contributions from both sides of the argument, it considers the historical overview of leadership and management as a profession, questions what constitutes a profession, and critically addresses the practicality of professionalizing leadership. With a range of perspectives including political philosophy, behavioral professionalism and management history, the book intends to facilitate further discussion on the issues at stake. With a number of education programs beginning to focus on the art and practice of leading people, this debate is particularly timely.
The article looks at the civil service as an occupation from the neo- Weberian perspective aiming to analyze specifics of the professionalization of the bureaucrats. Based on the results of the semi-structural interviews with Russian civil servants a conclusion was made that as far as civil service as an occupation exists only within the federal and regional government bodies in Russia, this limitation makes it difficult for civil servants to form professional associations to provide professional autonomy, to restrain practices of social closure thus complicating emergence of a positive image of the profession.
This article is a sociological investigation of the concept of care, particularly in terms of professionalization of (parental) care. The aim of the article is to analyze how foster parents who live in children’s villages make sense of their parenting activities for themselves. Sociological conceptualization of care serve as the theoretical framework for our research, which allows us to answer questions, such as: what is care as an activity; who is supposed to provide mundane care; what is the locus of care; what kind of an institutional logic and cultural models of justification it is connected with. Our analysis is based on the empirical research in five children’s villages in which we conducted focus groups with foster parents living in those children’s villages (family campuses) and three semi-structured thematic interviews with foster parents which all were recorded and transcribed.
Due to ”deficit of care”, a problem characteristic to modern societies, there is growing interest in sociological analysis of care. The global trend towards professionalization of care in general and professionalization of parenting in particular makes it possible to consider care as a particular kind of activity, which requires special skills and knowledge from the performer of care activity. This activity is beyond the private sphere and it can be performed by a number of actors: family, the state, the market and/or the third sector. Foster parenting is a good example of how the global trend of the professionalization of care is applied in a local context under the conditions structured by the deinstitutionalization policy of care for children left without parental care and by the particular environment of living, namely a children’s village.
The children’s village — collective living of foster families — is understood in this article as a particular regime of care, which consists of the following elements of care: ideals of care, its institutional setting and concrete caring practices. Children’s villages are a form of long-term upbringing of children left without parental care orphans. This particular form is based on the ideal of care in family opposed to institutionalized form of care (orphanage).
The key difference of a children’s village from other forms of care for this category of children is its very special spatial locus and social structure, intensive presence of foster parent community and special features related to foster parents themselves (such as the length of experience in foster parenting and in raising such children that face difficulties to be place in “ordinary” foster families, specialization of caring certain categories of children).
The studied foster parents problematize the performed care by perceiving their activity through a tension which can be viewed as a love-work dichotomy. Their understanding of caring as love over the foster children in their families can be categorized as moral conducts and mission calling. These leads to a certain system of interpretations over foster parenting and the logic of practicing parenthood and concrete parenting practices. The professionalization of foster parenting is perceived as formalization and increasing bureaucratic control and thus as a loss of autonomy of a family. Understanding of care over foster children as work in turn allows foster parents to rationalize their activities and to question the official status of a foster parent in Russian society. Professionalization of foster parenting serves as a way to address a number of problems that parents face, attitude changes toward fostering and increasing the status of care in general.
We make detailed observations of the self-reported job preferences of 2nd public administration undergraduates in two prestigious universities in Moscow, Russian Federation. We report that federal civil service is the top destination for Russian PA undergraduates. We also report that working in federal civil service by far triumphs over regional public administration in terms of self-reported occupational intention. We also make in-depth observations of the expected utility underlying students’ job preferences.
The paper focuses on the analysis of professional/occupational groups that are depended more than others on the support of the state for their prosperity. We consider approaches to the definition of the methods of this support, principles and models of interaction of the state and professional/occupational groups in the processes of professionalization. A significant influence of historical and social context requires not only sociological but also institutional approach for the analysis as well as appropriate institutional concepts. Institutional isomorphism approach and an institutional matrices theory are applied in the paper to investigate interaction between the state and professional groups, with conditions and prospects of their interconnections. Empirical data about professional associations in Russian engineering sphere is presented.