Functionalist sociologists have described professionalization as a positive and progressive force that fosters social change in ways that minimize social conflict and disintegration. The basis of professional practice was considered to be technical knowledge and the ideal of service. Early studies assumed a clear divide between the professions and occupations. Lists of traits were developed to distinguish the ideal type of a profession. The functionalist and traits approaches were criticized for their essentialist position. Conducted on microlevel, interactionist works focus on professional socialization in workplaces, relationships in the everyday life of occupations, and their meanings in working routine and in wider contexts. In the neo‐Weberian approach professionalization is seen as the project whereby a distinct occupational group seeks to gain a monopoly control of competence and credibility with the public and, as a result, to secure an increase in income, power, and prestige.
- Offers engaging debate surrounding leadership as a profession
- Includes contributions from a diverse number of experts
- Comprehensively illustrates the arguments for and against presenting leadership as a profession
This book presents a lively debate surrounding the professionalization of leadership. With contributions from both sides of the argument, it considers the historical overview of leadership and management as a profession, questions what constitutes a profession, and critically addresses the practicality of professionalizing leadership. With a range of perspectives including political philosophy, behavioral professionalism and management history, the book intends to facilitate further discussion on the issues at stake. With a number of education programs beginning to focus on the art and practice of leading people, this debate is particularly timely.
Administrative initiatives are gaining importance and visibility because of the higher education transformation and challenges it is facing. Both administrative employees and scholars are involved in the competition for jurisdiction in academia. The article is devoted to this tension and the process of university administrative practice professionalization, which has already started in Europe and US, but is only beginning to be developed in Russia. The research was conducted by analyzing world HE administrators’ and managers’ associations and educational programs, and by interviewing Russian universities managers and administrators. The goal of the research was to figure out the characteristics of academic management as a professional practice, to demonstrate an increase of administrative work status and to follow the steps of the profession’s development. The future of the tension between two groups of professionals and the perspectives of university administrators’ profession will be discussed.
The practice of art management is analyzed on the basis of the structure of the business model of A.Osterwalder and Y. Pigneur. The aspects of management are more or less mastered by the management organizations of the sphere of culture and art. It is suggested that for “product-oriented” art institutions, for successful presence in the market, it is necessary to transform the technologies of interaction with consumers and partners, while preserving the specifics of the cultural product itself.
This article considers the main stages of development and problems discussed in the research field known as chaplaincy studies. These studies arose in the second half of the twentieth century in the English-language tradition as a result of the improved practical understanding of the experiences of non-parish ministries in Christian churches across various secular institutions. Modern chaplaincy studies bring together practitioners from different sectors, such as representatives of the academy and those who combine both academic and chaplaincy careers. Other distinctive features of the field are the dominance of studies carried out in English-speaking countries, the uneven study of individual sectors and analogues of non-parish Ministries that appear outside the Christian denominations. Due to the public importance of health care, the experience of the chaplains in this sector is often studied and can often serve as a point of comparison for researchers studying other sectors. This article considers in more detail how the work of priests in hospitals, peripheral to organized religion, was professionalized and reformulated in terms of providing universal spiritual and pastoral care to patients, their relatives and medical personnel, regardless of religious affiliation and beliefs. Alongside this professionalization process, these institutions experienced the transformative impact of neoliberal reforms. On the one hand, the increasing marginalization of hospital chaplains in relation to organized religion is explained in the context of religious dedifferentiation. This marginalization has become an important resource for Christian churches, giving the latter access to the non-churched majority. On the other hand, this resource is producing a new, reflective priest-researcher, for whom it is important to specialize in working with a certain category of patients, to combine pastoral work with counseling and solve individual problems. Additionally, it has become crucial developing techniques of listening and observation, as well as expanding methodological tools and publishing research results.
The present paper tries to confirm or refute the hypothesis about Russian commercial procedure as a type of professional legal process. An interim conclusion is made that the position according to which a professional judicial process is a process oriented to professional participants is conservative. Instead of this position, the author puts forward and substantiates the thesis that the main feature of a professional judicial process is effective procedural cooperation between the court and the persons participating in the case. At the same time, the analysis of commercial courts practice conducted in the article leads to the conclusion that the court and the parties have a rather formal cooperation, which is extremely difficult to recognize as effective. This circumstance indicates that it is premature to consider the Russian arbitration process as a professional judicial process. According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in order to give the commercial procedure a professional character, it is necessary not only a fundamental change in the approaches of judicial practice, but also a fundamental change in the general psychology of the cooperation between the court and the parties.
This article presents material from literature and responses from national experts about social work developments in the 15 Former Soviet Union (FSU) states, since independence in 1991. Taking professionalization as a theoretical framework and considering the role of the state and other actors, the authors use a thematic approach to analyse the factors relevant to the professional project. Throughout the region, the state is identified as still the major actor in driving welfare changes and creating the organizational and legislative bases for the development of social work. A chronology of legislation relevant to the establishment of social work is included which highlights the variations in the pace of developments, as do the establishment of professional education (throughout the region) and professional associations (in most countries). The authors conclude that the professional project faces many challenges across the FSU region and the progress made – or lack of it in some countries – can be related to the politics and economics of particular states. However, the evidence suggests that, less than a quarter of a century after the demise of communism, this project has been initiated in all but one FSU countries and there are indications of positive developments.