Common Legacy: Evolution of the Institutional Landscape of Soviet Higher Education
The objective of this chapter is to present the common legacy basis for the chapters devoted to specific post-Soviet countries.
The monograph is devoted to school assessment in seven post-Soviet countries: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Tajikistan. The chapters are written within the framework of a unified methodological approach.
The text addresses the following issues: who is entitled to assess schools, the general outline of the assessment procedure, how its results are used, whether there is a self-evaluation and ranking procedure for schools. It also contains criticism of the existing system and plans for its development. In the book, the emphasis is put on the analysis of common and distinctive features in the experience of the countries examined.
The authors hope that this work will be useful to researchers and practitioners from all over the world. They are ready to join their forces with all interested researchers in order to further analyze significant changes that occured in the education systems of the post-Soviet countries, as well as their causes and consequences.
Race and Racism in Russia identifies the striking changes in racial ideas, practices, exclusions and violence in Russia since the 1990s, revealing how 'Russianness' has become a synonym for racial whiteness. This ground-breaking book provides new theories and substantive insights into race and ethnicity in a Russian context.
This book is novel not only in its theoretical framework, which places racialisation in post-communist societies and their modernist political projects at the centre of processes of global racism, but also in being the first account to examine both these new national contexts and the interconnections between racisms in these four regions of the Baltic states, the Southern Caucasus, Central Asia and Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine, and elsewhere. Assessments of the significance of the contemporary geopolitical contexts of armed conflict, economic transformation and political transition for racial discourse are central themes, and the book highlights the creative, innovative and persistent power of contemporary forms of racial governance which has central significance for understanding contemporary societies.
The book will be of interest to scholars and students in the areas of racism and ethnicity studies.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union two decades ago created a new migration situation in the region. Although former Soviet republics develop independently, the region remains a common area for the vast majority of population. The post-Soviet movement of people is facilitated by shared transportation and communication systems, a regionally recognized language (Russian), education systems, complementary labor markets, and similar mentalities and behavior patterns. Russia is an important place of destination for regional migration. This may be attributed to notable income differentiation between former Soviet republics and Russia. Relevant changes of demographic profile in both directions also predict and reflect the patterns and flows of regional movement of people. This paper is aimed at analyzing and identifying factors affecting regional migration flows to Russia. The gravity model, being a key empirical tool, has been utilized in the paper. The research approach to the topic of interest remains interdisciplinary as it incorporates both economic and non-economic factors of migration patterns. The key finding of the paper is that the level of income in source countries and population in places of origin and destination are influential for migration. Socio-cultural factors which reflect a common historical background remain significant in all estimations.
During several decades Soviet academic psychology community was isolated from the West, but after the collapse of the Soviet Union each of the 15 countries went its own way in economic, social, and scientific development. The paper analyses publications from post-Soviet countries in psychological journals in 1992–2016, i.e. 25 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Results show that 15 post-Soviet countries have produced in sum less than one percent from the world output in psychological journals. There is a huge diversity in the number of papers between 15 post-Soviet countries. Russia, Estonia, and Lithuania are the leaders among them. Authors of the more than 90% of all post-Soviet countries' papers are affiliated with these three countries. The most intensive collaboration is between Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Georgia and between three Baltic countries. Post-Soviet countries also differ in publication patterns.
Much of the economics and political science literarure on economic change since the fall of the Soviet Union interprets that experience through the lens of rational choice, assuming a logic of instrumental rationality. In such a perspective, people have clear goals and act as individuals to achieve them in a relatively straightforward manner. Societal outcomes, including economic change, are the aggregate result of these individual choices. This perspective inclines analysts to take the existence of institutions and organisations as given, without examining what they are made up of, and how they are reproduced or change, in ‘everyday practices of “little people”’
After the Ukrainian crisis and Russia’s actions in Crimea and Donbass, there is a growing lack of understanding about Russian interests in the post-Soviet space. Russian authorities have been accused of having a desire to expand its territory, trying to re-Sovietise the region, and using neo-imperial approaches of doing business with its neighbours. However, the genesis of Russian strategy towards post-Soviet space is much more complicated. It is based on the country’s long-term interests, such as economic cooperation, security, regional stability, cultural contacts, and preservation of historical influence. Studying these interests and their contribution to the foreign policy helps us better understand Russia’s strategy in the European post-Soviet countries.
This encyclopedia entry discusses the contested understanding of the notion of civil society on a global scale. This essay suggests differentiating the definitions of civil society in the Western and Eastern tradition. Lately, the idea of civil society was conceptualized in Western tradition as an aggregation of a plethora of charities and politically engaged nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). This encyclopedia entry argues that cultural context defines civil society institutions and suggests new conceptualization of civil society suitable for Eastern tradition. The entry discusses the distinguishing features of civil society in Russia, which can be found in many other Post-Soviet countries and, generally, in most countries of Eastern tradition.