Принцип признания чужой одушевленности в гуманитарном знании XX — начала XXI в.: границы применимости
The starting point of reasoning: the principle of recognition of recognition of the Other that is the mainstay in the theory of knowledge of Russian version of neo-Kantianism, developed by the founder of the philosophical direction A.I. Vvedensky and consistently implemented A.S. Lappo-Danilevsky in the methodology of source study when interpreting historical sources. But the ideal of interpretation, formulated by Lappo-Danilevsky, – to understand a historical source as he understood his author, – causes a reasonable doubt from the point of view of science of XX century. The article shows that the development of the source study – as the most productive component of the Russian version of neo-Kantianism for historical knowledge – in the direction of the neo-classical model of science “the recognition of the Other”, on the one hand, received their limiters, but on the other hand, organically fit into the historical knowledge of the XX century. Selected two turning points: (1) the transformation of the object of source study from a historical source, understood as “a realized product of the human psyche...” (Lappo-Danilevsky), to the system of types of historical sources as projections of culture, (2) the offset of historical knowledge from the Humanities to the Social Sciences, which entailed redefining the character of the protagonist of the historical process from the person, – for the understanding of which was used to advantage the principle of “recognition of the Other” – to the actor, the understanding of the action of which requires different mechanisms of interpretation. It is shown that the kind of historical sources as the basic classification unit performs the same function as the function of social structures in historical knowledge, sets the “frame” restricting the implementation of the principle of “recognition of the Other” strictly explicated the context of culture; development in the Russian historiography in the 1950-1970 the system of types of historical sources as the projection of culture is the trend of the world historical science, the focus of which in the XX century was the shift from the linear model of history writing to the explication of structures (option of School “Annals” and especially German structural history by W. Conze).