Introduction. To verify harmony by algebra
This article provides an empirically grounded analysis for two fundamentally different models of mathematics teachers’ beliefs about student diversity in Russian secondary schools: exclusive and inclusive models. Although teachers’ beliefs are considered a central factor for the differentiated approach, teachers’ beliefs could be stereotyped and, consequently, the evaluation of a student’s ability would be systematically shifted and decisions about the possibility of teaching a student would be incorrect. Semi-structured interviews with 30 mathematics teachers allowed us to investigate what criteria teachers claim to employ while classifying students in the classroom and what expectations they have for each group of students. It was found that within the exclusive model, teachers have an image of a “normal” student and use discrete categories for labelling students with reference to the “normality”. Within the inclusive model teachers tend not to match students with discrete categories; rather they prefer to compare a student only with herself or himself. Research findings are discussed in the context of a possible “fixed effect” on a student’s development. However, there is a need for further investigation of a connection between teachers’ belief systems, teaching practices, and student achievement.
Although research collaboration has been studied extensively, we still lack understanding regarding the factors stimulating researchers to collaborate with different kinds of research partners including members of the same research center or group, researchers from the same organization, researchers from other academic and non-academic organizations as well as international partners. Here, we provide an explanation of the emergence of diverse collaborative ties. The theoretical framework used for understanding research collaboration couples scientific and technical human capital embodied in the individual with the social organization and cognitive characteristics of the research field. We analyze survey data collected from Slovenian scientists in four scientific disciplines: mathematics; physics; biotechnology; and sociology. The results show that while individual characteristics and resources are among the strongest predictors of collaboration, very different mechanisms underlie collaboration with different kinds of partners. International collaboration is particularly important for the researchers in small national science systems. Collaboration with colleagues from various domestic organizations presents a vehicle for resource mobilization. Within organizations collaboration reflects the elaborated division of labor in the laboratories and high level of competition between different research groups. These results hold practical implications for policymakers interested in promoting quality research.
This article consider The project of the scientific and educational Center for integration of multimedia technologies in science, education and culture, as space-technological environment for the implementation of innovative scientific and educational projects of the 21st century, which should become the support for the master's programs, especially interdisciplinary; at the intersection of science, art and information technologies, and implementation of innovative scientific and commercial projects, which are to become a master's thesis.
The three already traditional volumes of the WDS Proceedings you are holding in the hands are composed of the contributions which have been presented during the 21st Annual Conference of Doctoral Students that was held in Prague, at Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics from May 29 to June 1, 2012. In this year, 100 student manuscripts were submitted to publishing and 88 were accepted after the review process.
The paper discusses in detail the scale of translation of primary points scored by school graduates in the unified state exam in mathematics, used from 2013 to the present time. Based on the analysis of the dynamics of these scales, a conclusion is made about the annual increase in the "average" 100-point result, as well as the presence of a significant increase in the final grade compared with the linear scale. Additionally, the authors describe the effect of reducing the value of primary points as they approach the maximum.