Aggregating Local Deep Features for Image Retrieval
Several recent works have shown that image descriptors produced by deep convolutional neural networks provide state-of-the-art performance for image classification and retrieval problems. It has also been shown that the activations from the convolutional layers can be interpreted as local features describing particular image regions. These local features can be aggregated using aggregation approaches developed for local features (e.g. Fisher vectors), thus providing new powerful global descriptors. In this paper we investigate possible ways to aggregate local deep features to produce compact global descriptors for image retrieval. First, we show that deep features and traditional hand-engineered features have quite different distributions of pairwise similarities, hence existing aggregation methods have to be carefully re-evaluated. Such re-evaluation reveals that in contrast to shallow features, the simple aggregation method based on sum pooling provides arguably the best performance for deep convolutional features. This method is efficient, has few parameters, and bears little risk of overfitting when e.g. learning the PCA matrix. Overall, the new compact global descriptor improves the state-of-the-art on four common benchmarks considerably.