Традиции имянаречения династии Каролингов
The author deals with the issues of the variety, systematization and evolution of definitions concerning different forms of taxation and obligations (census, tribute, corvée etc.) in early medieval Europe. Author pays his special interest to late ancient and early medieval legal sources (known as leges barbarorum) as well as to some historical sources (namely The History of the Franks written by Gregory of Tours and Chronicles of Fredegar), Frankish legal formulas of the 6th-8th centuries, Carolingian capitularies and polyptychs of the 9th century. The evidence of the imperial landsurveys of the 4th and 5th centuries confirms universal character of taxation (census and tributum) in late Roman Gaul and Spain. The revival of this tradition attempted by Frankish kings Chlothar I and Childebert II wasn’t such successful as in Visigothic Spain in the 6th century but prevented the total destruction of the system of taxation of Roman and Germanic population before the end of the 7th century. Nevertheless the simplification of rural economy and the growth of monastic estates as well as royal and private land possessions in Western Europe in the 8th and early 9th centuries led to the diminution of freedom and peasant tenures and to the increase of number of their payments and obligations (e.g. most of formerly payable taxes were replaced with food supply, personal services and corvée).
This abstract is devoted to the typology of the Lex Salica manuscript tradition. The objectives of the report include: a) an overview of the manuscript tradition of the Lex Salica; b) a classification of the Lex Salica copies according to the external evidence (format, miniatures); c) a substantiation of the hypothesis about the aim behind some of the texts in question.
The article deals with the most important fragment of the History of the Francs of Gregory of Tours, which is sometimes called the “oldest treaty of France”. It is an agreement concluded by the Merovingian kings Gunthram and Childebert II in Andelot in 587. The singularity of this pact lies in the facts that it was added in an unusual context of the early medieval chronicle and is found nowhere else in collections of law of the 6th century. Discovering the similarities between the form and content of the treaty in Andelot, acts in public and private forms of the Middle Ages, the author applies the analysis of formulary to the text of the annual record of the History of the Francs and compares it with the capitularies of the Carolingian era. Deriving the clauses of the protocol, the operative part (corpus) and the eschatocol from the entire text one can make an assumption that Gregory of Tours actually was present at the time of its compilation and attestation, and also had the copy at the time of writing the History of the Francs.