Review of Sh. Izre'el & E. Cohen. Literary Old Babylonian
The standard translation for the Syriac word myatrūṯā is believed to be virtue (ἀρετή). The present article demonstrates that this is not so evident. The etymological analysis shows that the semantics of the stem YTR is constructed around the idea of tension (nervous or muscular). Syriac lexicographers registered some further developments, as the derivatives acquired meanings of abundance, benefit and convenience. The most sophisticated is the latest meaning of dignity out of which moral excellence has been extracted. Syro-Arabic lexicographers prefer to use words constructed upon the root fḍl thus reflecting the semantic shift. Greek word initially connected with military bravery has been chosen for the translation of myatrūṯā because of that later development. In the Syriac mystical literary Corpus the word myatrūṯā continued to be used in different ways. For the analysis Memre 1-6 fron the First Collection of Isaac have been chosen. Greek translators of St Isasac of Nineveh Patrikios and Abraamios inevitably used ἀρετή to render myatrūṯā. In the article a tentative semantical formalization for the word myatrūṯā has been performed. It falls into four vectors: ascetics in general (a); spiritual life (b); abundance (c) and, finally, acquired habit of good-doing (= virtue) (d). The results are preliminary but a somewhat more nuanced approach to the translation and understanding of the word in question seems to be a must.
This study addresses the words unique to the extant Neo-Assyrian corpus. All of them are listed in the paper, with etymological and philological notes wherever feasible or appropriate. Two foci of the inquiry are innovations in the basic lexicon of Neo-Assyrian and productive rules of word-formation in this language.
The first part of the paper is devoted to the problem of reconstruction of Tablet IV of the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. The second part deals with the place name Ḫamrān in an Old Babylonian Gilgamesh tablet from the Schøyen Collection. It is proposed that Ḫamrān is to be identified with Armānum, a city mostly known from the royal inscriptions of Naram-Sin.
The paper offers an edition of an Old Babylonian Gilgamesh tablet from the Schøyen Collection (OB Schøyen2 in the edition by A.R. George). The text has been extensively commented upon. New interpretations are proposed for ll. 30, 37, 40, 46, 55.