Категория репрезентации у модальных глаголов возможности в славянских языках
Representation of modal verbs
This article is devoted to the analysis of verbal peculiarities of communicative strategy Directive in English discourse. The historically formed peculiarities of English-speaking communicants’ attitude toward the ways of expressing directive are also distinguished in order to highlight their culturological originality. The main focus is directed towards the lingual expressions of directive in different communicative situations. Considerable emphasis is given to the means of softening and avoiding of direct imperative constructions as part of the strategy of distancing. The empiric material for our research is represented by authentic literature of English-speaking countries of the 21-st century.
The article focuses on Russian constructions where the case of an NP is not acquired from the syntactic head. This phenomenon is characteristic, first of all, for comparative constructions with kak (Mozhet, mne, kak Vase, uexat’ v derevnju? ‘Maybe, I, like Vasja, should go to the village?’) and for constructiosn with comparative degree and the marker čem (Mne nado est’ bol’še, čem drugim). The experiment described in the work shows that mainly dative forms are copied, but genitive doubling is also possible. In dative constructions, the dative expresses PRO of the infinitive clause and / or and Experiencer of the modal predicate. The possibility of this non-structural marking results from several reasons: the nature of comparatives, which are intermediate between coordination and subordination; the possibility of avoid a non-canonical linear position of the standard of comparison (for constructions with the marker kak i). Constructions where non-finite verb forms are copied are organized similarly to case copying constructions. Finally, Russian has constructions outside the comparison domain where the form of two constituents must be identical, though only one of them acquires this form by means of canonical head-dependent relations. We also argue that the non-structural case assignment does not result from coordinate properties of comparative constructions. it is motivated by a rule not related to the head-dependent relations, the rule that can be called ‘syntactic doubling / copying’ and can be explained by the semantic symmetry between the object and the standard of comparison.