Governance and the State: Theory and Russian Specifics
Definitions: State is a type of polity that is characterized by two main dimensions: “statehood” and “stateness.” Statehood is the recognition of the state by other states as independent nation, equal to others to participate on international arena; receiving and having the “statehood” for country mean that it is a part of the “concert of nations,” such as the member of the United Nations organization. Stateness is a state capacity to sustain its territory, nation, and citizens’ welfare; it is not enough being recognized by other states as such, but also important to support this status in time
This work serves as a comprehensive collection of global scholarship regarding the vast fields of public administration and public policy. Written and edited by leading international scholars and practitioners, this exhaustive resource covers all areas of the twin fields of study. In keeping with the multidisciplinary spirit of these fields, the entries make use of various theoretical, empirical, analytical, practical, and methodological bases of knowledge. The encyclopedia provides a snapshot of the most current research in public administration and public policy, covering such important areas as: 1. organization theory, behavior, change and development 2. administrative theory and practice 3. bureaucracy 4. public budgeting and financial management 5. public finance and public management 6. public personnel and labor-management relations 7. crisis and emergency management 8. institutional theory and public administration 9. law and regulations 10. ethics and accountability Relevant to professionals, experts, scholars, general readers, and students worldwide, this work will serve as the most viable global reference source for those looking for an introduction to the field.
This Handbook explores the multifaceted linkages between two of the most important socioeconomic phenomena of our time: globalisation and migration. Both are on the rise, increasing in size and scope worldwide, and this Handbook offers the necessary background knowledge and tools to understand how population flows shape, and are shaped by, economic and cultural globalisation. Through central themes which correspond to the four domains of human life – politics, economics (separated into trade and development, and the global division of labour), culture and family life – expert authors from five continents highlight the interdependence between migration and globalisation, and explore the mutual impact of economic, social and political globalisation on international population flows. They also investigate how migrants themselves become agents of the globalisation process. With accessible language that guides the reader easily through complex issues, this Handbook makes an ideal resource for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and academics interested in migration, ethnicity, development, international relations and international economics.
The article integrates several theoretical and practical issues into the general context of the contemporary crisis of the bureaucratic state and a quest for new patterns of governance. Considering the paradox of the positive influence of social distrust on political development, the dependence between trust and corruption, and recent changes in the public management of several leading countries as a kind of administrative response to new situations in the contemporary world, the author devotes the main part of the article to the case of Russia. Several rounds of unsuccessful efforts to create a genuine public service in post-Soviet Russia are described and the reasons for failure are explored. The common denominator of the author’s approach is an appraisal of the current condition of bureaucratic state institutions and personnel as unsuited to contemporary public expectations and demands, and the vital need to make them much more responsive and cooperative.
This book provides unique insights into the role of policy capacity in policymaking and policy change, as it is being uncovered at the research frontier in contemporary policy studies. The book is structured into a series of sections on policy capacity in theory and practice, each focusing on a specific aspect of policy capacity and its influence on policy formulation, decision-making, implementation and evaluation. In addition to making a significant contribution to the body of literature on the theoretical approaches to researching the role of capacity in policymaking, it also provides practical examples of the application of these approaches through a variety of national and sectoral case studies. Including contributions from authors working in a wide variety of disciplines, the book demonstrates, across the various topics investigated, many commonalities and consistencies in relation to the study of policy capacity and policy-making. This work has interdisciplinary appeal and will engage scholars in fields ranging from geography to communications, health, social work and political science, amongst others with an interest in public policy
Based on a survey of a representative sample of nonprofit organizations, this article explores the impact of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act (SOX) on the nonprofit sector. The study addresses two questions: What is the level of SOX adoption by nonprofit organizations? and How do we explain variations in the adoption level of SOX? Using Poisson regression models, our study finds that the level of SOX adoption in nonprofit organizations is determined to a large extent by nonprofit organizations’ accountability and transparency structure prior to SOX. When this factor is taken into account, contrary to previous studies, the level of SOX adoption by nonprofits is modest. In addition to the existing accountability structure, important variables in the statistical explanation of SOX adoption include CEOs’ familiarity with SOX, attitudes of nonprofit CEOs toward SOX, and organization size.
The paper critically analyzes certain approaches in political science literature to understanding the efficiency. Moreover, there are certain problems of its operationalization and quantitative measurement. The authors question accuracy and “objectivity” of the existing concepts and methodologies used by empirical databases on an assessment of state efficiency. The research sets the purpose to reach the “more objective” efficiency which would respond the principles of valuable neutrality (absence of normativism), relevance and generality (suitable for any case regardless of a political regime, form of government, etc.), creating the conceptual frame and operationalization. Authors take an attempt to represent an approach to the “objective” efficiency as the ability of the state to transform its resources into socially significant results with minimal costs. This is supposed to be possible with Data Envelopment Analysis, which provides the production function of effectiveness by using input and output empirical data.
The concluding chapter takes stock of the book’s core notion of high participation systems (HPS) of higher education, in the context of the eight country studies and seventeen HPS propositions. The propositions engender extensive, though not unanimous, support. Declining institutional diversity and more complex governance are broadly agreed, but Finland and Norway differ from the other cases in stratification and equity. The HPS theory and findings are compared and contrasted with Martin Trow’s seminal work. The book ends with a central and enduring tension in HPS. Higher education as self-formation empowers individual agency in HPS on a larger and more inclusive scale. Yet, in HPS those without higher education are more disadvantaged; the average graduate has less social and occupational distinction; and secular tendencies to intensive competition for elite education and institutional bifurcation lead to greater inequality in educational and social outcomes, unless Nordic-style values are sustained.