War after War: The Soviet Mobilization Model and Mass Consumption in the1940s and 1950s
This essay deal with history of postwar patterns of distribution and consumption in the USSR in two contexts: as a direct result of the war; and as part of the development of the Stalinist mobilization model in general.
This documentation is dedicated to the history of the finding and deciphering of the handwritten account of Marcel Nadjari (1917-1971), a Greek Jew who was a member of the Sonderkommando in Auschwitz-Birkenau, which had to work in the gas chambers and crematoria. It covers one of a total of nine analogous accounts which were composed by five members of the Sonderkommando as a secret message from the centre of extermination and hidden there for posterity. For 35 years, Nadjari's manuscript remained buried in a thermos flask in the ground and was only discovered in 1980. Its condition was so bad, that only approximately ten percent of the text were legible. The Russian computer specialist Aleksandr Nikityaev however has been able to make almost 90 percent of the text legible through the use of multispectral images, permitting a whole new form of access to the text, which is published here in this form for the first time.
For the first time ever in this book - complete and unabridged - all the available Zalman Gradowski's texts are presented. The Author was one of the Sonderkommando's member at the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, who had perished on October 7, 1944 during the mutiny. His notes were discovered at the end of the Second World War in the ashes near the camp crematorium where he had worked. This testimony of the direct witness of the tragedy without any exaggeration could be branded as one of the most important Holocaust documents. This book is addressed to the widest possible readers' audience.
The home front of World War II is increasingly recognized by historians as a vital part of not only military strategies during a war with an unparalleled degree of civilian mobilization, but also as a catalyst for broader social developments for example in gender and race relations. Differences in available supply and the distribution of food stuffs made for very different experiences in home front consumption by civilian consumers.
The publication includes an autobiography, a diary and letters from a young man from a former Pale of Settlement. Boris Tanis was born in 1923 into a Jewish family in Western Ukraine. After the partition of Poland, he took Soviet citizenship and, as a soldier of the Red Army, went through World War II. Boris Tanis’ diary, written in the wake of his return home to the Rivne region in 1945–1946, reflects the thoughts and feelings of a Soviet soldier who lost his family during the Holocaust. Having enthusiastically adopted the ideals of the Soviet regime, after the end of the war Boris Tanis goes to Central Asia, where he manages to make a career as an official in the construction sector. Published ego-documents may be of interest to historians of the Second World War, researchers of Jewish and Soviet history, and specialists in the history of emotions. Documents are provided with an introduction and comments.
Amid the extensive literature on the Stalinist dictatorship during the 1930s and the postwar period, the gap in scholarship on the Soviet leadership during the war years is particularly noticeable. This article fills that gap. Stalin’s war cabinet is characterised according to several criteria: first, the formal status of members of the leadership; second, the system of delegating authority; third, the functioning and competency of the structure of collective leadership; and fourth, Stalin’s loyalty to his top associates and the degree of their political immunity. The article demonstrates that the war years saw a relative ‘normalisation’ of the dictatorship. These important changes influenced the subsequent development of the Stalinist system of power and the evolution of Soviet authoritarianism after the dictator’s death.
The article considers the practices of implementing the labor laws, primarily the law on deserters, during the years from 1941 to 1945. The following questions are at the center of attention: How were the bulk of sentences under the labor decrees carried out? How, due to delays in the implementation of these decrees, did the number of individuals actually serving their sentences change over time? How can the large-scale nonimplementation of the decrees or correctives applied to them be interpreted? In addition to published documents, this article studies these questions via documents from the USSR procuracy, which exercised oversight over the implementation of extraordinary labor law/
This paper deals with the issue of trophy films, transported by the Soviet Army to the USSR after the Second World War.