Факторы склонности к здоровому образу жизни
Despite efforts to curb tobacco use, global tobacco addiction remains as strong as ever. Smoking rates are declining very slowly in advanced countries, and they are increasing in the developing world. Yet, researchers still do not fully understand what drives smoking decisions. Life-Course Smoking Behavior presents smoking trajectories of different generations of women and men from ten of the world's most visible countries, with nation-specific representative samples spanning more than eighty years of recent history. To inspire hypotheses on the determinants of smoking behavior, the authors place these data in economic, political, social, and cultural contexts, which differ greatly both across countries at a particular time and over time in a given country. Though significant research has been conducted on smoking statistics and tobacco control policies, most descriptions of smoking behavior rely on cross-sectional "snapshot" data that do not track individuals' habits throughout their lifespan. Lillard and Christopoulou's work is a unique and necessary text in its comparative life-course approach, making it a long overdue complement to the existing literature.https://global.oup.com/academic/product/life-course-smoking-behavior-9780199389100?q=life-course%20smoking%20behavior&lang=en&cc=ru#
The goal of this project is to find out the influence of some economic and social factors on the demand for alcohol in modern Russia. The number of regression models is estimated on the base of "The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE)" 1994-2011. There are classic models of demand for alcohol of Becker and Murphy (1988): static, myopic and rational addiction models. We use two-step way of estimation because of two-step consumer decision ("to drink or not to drink" and how much to drink). This way let it possible to find out the factors of every decision separately. The new idea of this research is to use as independent variables not only economic parameters (as prices and incomes of respondent and his\her family members) but some social characteristics such as educational level, gender, age, nationality, optimism level, alcohol use by other family members, and other. The first results have demonstrated some that social factors (education, marital status, alcohol use by other family members) are more important that the economic ones (as price for alcohol).
Previous studies have highlighted the fact that the associations of cortisol with SS are still controversial (ex.: Croissant et al., 2008; Rosenblitt et al., 2001; Zuckerman, 1994). The relationship between cortisol level, sensation seeking and alcohol and smoking habits is the task of this study. Saliva samples were taken from 159 students to measure salivary cortisol concentrations. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale was used to assess different aspects of SS. The group with high and low SS revealed no significant correlations between cortisol level and SS scores. Group with average SS scores has negative correlations between cortisol level and “sensation seeking” (r = −0.26, p < 0.01) “thrill and adventure seeking” (r = −0.29, p < 0.01). Alcohol habit positively correlates with “thrill and adventure seeking” (r = 0.41, p < 0.01) and “activity–passivity” (r = 0.43, p < 0.01) only at high level of SS. Smoking habits has no significant correlations. Cortisol level positively correlate with smoking habits (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) in group with low SS scores.
The chapter provides a review of contemporary life style policies in Russia highlighting main issues and suggesting some improvements in governmental interventions.