Transformation of the Economic Model in Asia-Pacific Region: Implications for Russia’s Far East and Siberia
With the ‘turn to the East’ in Russian foreign policy, the development of the Russian Far East has become one of the priorities of Russian government that has made various attempts to integrate it into the economy of the Asia-Pacific region (APR). This integration should be driven by mutual interest, not only based on Russia’s vision of the prospects of its Eastern territories but also on APR countries’ demand for their involvement. This chapter argues that this demand is changing now because of the transformation of the economic model in APR countries. This transformation includes four shifts: (1) from extensive export-oriented economic growth towards an intensive one based on growing internal demand; (2) from primitive labour-intensive products towards relatively high quality and high-tech ones; (3) from dominating exports to developed countries towards orientation to intraregional markets; (4) from rapid development in coastal areas towards fast economic growth at the former periphery. These shifts generate demand for resource-intensive (energy, land, water) consumer goods as well as infrastructure connecting new APR growth areas with territories where these goods are produced. The main opportunity of Russia’s Far East to integrate into the APR is through meeting this demand. For this purpose some approaches and principles of Russian Far Eastern policy should be revised.
Russia's new 'pivot to Asia' increases the global significance of Russia's Siberia and Far East. Moscow's eastward turn is not only motivated by the growth of economic, strategic and political dynamism of Asia-Pacific. A more fundamental and far-reaching cause of Russia's withdrawal of its historic attraction to the West is the impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the United States and Europe and, as a consequence, a relative decline of the West's economic attractiveness. Given the current crisis in Ukraine, which has shed light upon the implications of a resurgent Russia and reshaped its relations with Asia Pacific, there has been growing interest amongst countries from the Asia-Pacific region in cooperating with Russia towards the development of Siberia and Russia's Far East. This timely edited collection includes chapters by internationally recognized experts from Russia, China, South Korea, Japan, Norway and Singapore. The contributors analyze political, economic, social and geostrategic roadblocks in the Russia/Asia Pacific relations, offering directions for further development.
This article is devoted to the development of migration in the Russian Far East over the past centuries. Analyzing census data (from the first census in the Russian Empire in 1897 to the Russian Census 2010), the author investigates temporal and spatial transformations of migration processes in the Russian Far East regions.
Using the concept of lifetime migration, the author reveals, what regions and territories provided the growth of the population of the Russian Far East during the last centuries, where these people were going and what results it produced. This paper also tries to explain, how the Russian Far East modified from the most colonized and actively increasing population region to the most quickly losing it territory in the Russian Federation.
This concept allows to estimate migration over a long period in the absence of other reliable sources of information. The Russian Far East made the transition from the most colonized and actively increasing population to the territory of most losing it.
Starting from Sakhalin projects and following the production facilities establishment by Japanese companies in manufacturing industries in Russia investment relations between the two countries started expanding rapidly during the recent couple of decades. Today investment cooperation has reached a new development stage, which reveals not only quantitative, but also qualitative changes in the pattern of FDI flows, especially in terms of structure and technological level.
The paper addresses the aspect of regional differences in the approach of Japanese investors toward projects in Russia. The comparison of the major macro-regions that attract Japanese investment (Far-Eastern and Western regions, including Central and North-Western Federal Districts) allows to reveal the critical differences in the industrial distribution that reflect specifics of economic development and investment climate of these territories. However, the Western and Eastern parts of Russia complement each other in terms of investment attraction and contribute to the development of multifaceted and diversified framework for investment cooperation between Russia and Japan.
Since 2015, the Free Port of Vladivostok regime has been functioning on the territory of five Far Eastern regions. It offers a simplified customs regime and a reduction in customs duties for entrepreneurs, as well as tax benefits and an immunity from time-consuming audit inspections. The Ministry for Development of Russian Far East introduced this economic instrument along with the Advanced Special Economic Zones to create an economic environment that will attract foreign investment to these territories, foster grassroots entrepreneurialism, and stimulate international trade with the Asia-Pacific countries. However, the local stakeholders negatively assess the results of the Free Port’s functioning. Over the past five years, the regime has not been able to fully reveal its potential. This article presents an analysis of Free Port’s development and highlights the most significant problems that impede the implementation of the concept of the Free Port, including legal regulation, strategic contradictions, malpractices, and infrastructural restrictions. The study is based on the analysis of official documents and legislative acts, statistical data, and analytical materials published by the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East and the Far East Development Corporation, as well as sixteen semi-structured interviews in Vladivostok.
The article presents the analysis of the international cooperation institutional management developments when universities’ geographical location is closed to the worlds’ new educational hubs. To promote educational services provided by the regionally engaged universities at the international (global, world) market of higher education institutional mission and main features of regional development should be carefully considered. Based on the comparative analysis of factors, needs and developments potential of the Primorskij kraj and demand for educational services in countries of the Asian Pacific Region the paper stresses the ability of Primorije regional universities to address existing demand on educational services in most popular fields of study in order to expand their influence on regional market of higher education. However the limited human resources and market underpin more targeted and field oriented approach for those regional universities focused on Asian Pacific Region international market of higher education and in-depth internationalization development at institutional level.
Nature abhors a "vacuum" - the new power elite arrives at the time of major social and political transformations and endeavours to shore up its position within the country and obtain support from outside. New power groups, which are active at times of revolution and who replace, push aside or even depose the old elites and impose their own control over the state machine and position themselves as new power elite.There are themselves not immune to social transformation, especially in the first decades of coming to their new commanding role. Unless its claims are given legitimacy it is unable to implement its positive programme, which it immediately claims as the national programme. Every country "acquires" a new functioning elite - political, financial and intellectual - from revolution or a change of regime. The old elite may lose control and depart or upon luck may merge into a new combination of social strata of particular country. We also believe that the composition and the structure of elites is the country-specific and reflect one’s country history.
Russia’s recent domestic and foreign policy steps demonstrate that the Russian government is setting a long-term geopolitical task of integrating the country into the Asia-Pacific through the accelerated development of its Siberian and Far Eastern regions. While attempts to reorient Russia toward the East are not completely new in the Russian history, this chapter demonstrates that now the geopolitical setting is different and this time conditions are ripe for Russia to make this change feasible. These circumstances open up new opportunities for international cooperation in the development of Russia’s Far East and Siberia, and many countries display interest in cooperation with Russia. However, to make international cooperation blossom in Russia’s eastern regions, Russia, together with foreign partners, needs to deal with a range of structural challenges and make changes accordingly.