Лингвистическое исследование: начало и окончание выпускной работы бакалавра и магистра
Subjected to analysis are the notions of conceptual and empirical research, the peculiarities of research in linguistics, the structure of BA and MA theses. The report provides thorough analysis of each part of such a project.
The conference brought together prominent linguists from all European countries, who talked across the vast variety of topics - how language structures evolve, a very slow time-scale for the evolution of structures, what is going on in the speech of people today, or what was it in the past, whether 'grammars' and 'speakers' can be viewed as a single homogenous group across the world's cultures, or do different effects get played in different cultures, whether particular grammars can provide ready grooves that induce speakers of some languages to make particular coding choices more often - in other wirds, fundamental questions for our understanding of why languages differ so much from each other.
At the time of completion of mass privatization, practically all researchers characterized the shareholdings of Russian firms as dispersed and insiderowned. 1 In the post-privatization period and against the background of the concentration of ownership, the share capital of firms was redistributed from ordinary employees to managers and from work collectives to external owners. Restrictions on the exercise of property rights under conditions of deep transformational decline and high inflation (nonliquidity of shares, absence of dividends, and also the removal of assets from the firm in the interests of managers or of a few owners) prompted shareholders to concentrate their holdings in order to obtain legitimate control over joint-stock companies.
Many researchers believe that enterprise knowledge today is the key resource to ensure the effectiveness of the firm. However, the empirical investigations of practical usage of management tools show that knowledge management meets the expectations much less frequently than other technologies. The hypothesis that value of accumulated enterprise knowledge is materialized in the form of changes in internal systems and external environment is proposed here on base of theoretical analysis. Therefore, change management is a complementary activity to the knowledge management, only joint development of these two management disciplines can provide the greatest effectiveness. To check this hypothesis empirical survey of 88 Russian companies was conducted. Survey results confirm that firms, which invest in knowledge management and change management simultaneously, are more effective than firms, which develop only one of these practices.
The articles considers trust as one of the most teasing and vague notions in the sociological science for it is widely used in both everyday language and scientific discourse as taken for granted and not presuming any special interpretations or contextually determined situational definitions. Moreover, sociology cannot claim to cover the trust topic entirely for the field of trust research is interdisciplinary, which generates differing theoretical and practical contributions to the field of trust studies and blurs both the disciplinary boundaries within it and the dividing lines between definitions of trust developed for theoretical and empirical research of different scale and purposes. In the first section the author identifies key elements of the sociological study of trust (causes and effects of trust (and distrust) in social life; determinants and practical implications of different ‘types’ and ‘levels’ of trust; attempts to distinguish trust from other semantically similar concepts; widely accepted conceptualizations of trust; the prevailing definition of trust as a means of coping with uncertainty, etc.). The second and the third sections summarize intentions and procedures of the empirical sociological study of trust within quantitative and qualitative approaches, pointing briefly to their results and focus of interest, which is social and political trust measured in large-scale surveys, often in the comparative perspective, in the former case; while the latter seeks to understand what trust means for people and why members of society prefer to speak about trust using specific words in particular situations. The fourth section discusses the discursive construction of trust in everyday narratives: the author believes that narrative analysis is a perfect methodological decision and a technical procedure (provided there is enough ‘quantitative’ and ‘qualitative’ data to contextualize its findings for correct interpretation) to identify the typological discursive constitution of trust in everyday relations and practices; and illustrates such a potential of narrative analysis on a small example of semi-structured interviews with the Russian rural dwellers. The article ends with a few concluding remarks to summarize key findings and challenges of the so-called trust research for now, which is justly enough considered to be at the crossroads.