Инструменты повышения конкурентоспособности регионов
Now days competitiveness is an important factor of regional development. This is case by scarcity resources, which form the varied system competitive of regions. As the region take part in the competition for resources, there is a need for estimating competitiveness.
There are various approaches to estimating competitiveness. Without conducting and in-depth analysis of positive and negative aspects of various approaches we would like to put forward a hypothesis that an integrated approach to the assessment of regional competitiveness manifests itself through external and internal evaluation.
The external evaluation involves determining the location of the region among competitors. The internal evaluation means identify specific factors of regions competitiveness, the use of which will allow the region to increase the level of competitiveness.
Its benefit is that in can be appealed in assessing the competitiveness of territorial entities of different hierarchical levels.
The article presents the methodology of a comprehensive research on HEIs’ role in regional development. The methodology was adapted to study the North-Eastern Federal University experience in facilitating Far Eastern Federal District economic and social development. To evaluate the university’s role in facilitating regional development three key dimensions were examined: innovation, education and research, socio-cultural sphere. These dimensions correspond to the federal universities’ functions, and meet development trends of Far Eastern Federal District. A toolkit for analysis of the North-Eastern Federal University development programme effectiveness was developed in the framework of the research. Evaluation of Far Eastern Federal District social and economic development trends and implementation of the North-Eastern Federal University development programme enabled to provide recommendations for the university future development. The research outcomes are of applied nature and can be used for elaboration of the university’s strategic development concept, and amendment of the ongoing university’s development programme. The conducted research creates foundation for the university’s effective contribution to the territory development. The research was conducted in the framework of the project “Analysis of the NEFU’s role in the development of the territory on the basis of the OECD methodology adapted for Russian universities to develop recommendations for enhancement of university’s influence on innovative, technological, educational and socio-cultural development of the region”, implemented within the contract № 1537-09/12, 24.09.2012 by the Institute of International Organisations of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics” and Department for Strategic Development of North-Eastern Federal University in 2012.
In this paper, attention will be focused on testing the author's methodology for assessing the competitiveness of regions, the development of which is determined by the foreign economic activity "mining of fuel and energy minerals". Evaluation of competitiveness is associated with spatial development and factors of competitive advantages of regions are considered through the “first”, “second” and “third” nature.
The article presents the main outcomes of a comprehensive research on the North-Eastern Federal University role in development of Far Eastern Federal District. The article includes outcomes of the field and desk studies: analysis of statistical data on socio-economic development of the Far Eastern District, self-assessment of North Eastern Federal University departments, surveys on the basis of formalized experts’ interviews and focus groups of various stakeholders. The research revealed the university tangible impact on the city (Yakutsk) and the Republic of Sakha development. However, the university needs a strategy to promote its influence in other Far Eastern regions and strengthen its positions in the Republic of Sakha. The analysis demonstrates that the university possesses necessary capacities to strengthen its positions to generate influence on territorial development in Far Eastern Federal District. However, utilization of the potential would require an agreement on a strategy to go ahead and harnessing of resources. The research is conducted in the framework of the project “Analysis of the NEFU’s role in the development of the territory on the basis of the OECD methodology adapted for Russian universities to develop recommendations for enhancement university’s influence on innovative, technological, educational and socio-cultural development of the region”, implemented within the contract № 1537-09/12, 24.09.2012 by the Institute of International Organisations of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics” and Department for Strategic Development of North Eastern Federal University in 2012.
The possibility of determining the branch competitiveness of regions using the shift-share analysis is considered. It allows for the revealing of the formation factors of competitiveness and evaluating their effects in terms of three directions: effect of changes in the national economy, regional development stimuli, and internal efficiency factor of a particular branch in the region. A comparative analysis is carried out, where the Central Federal District of Russia in 2005–2009 serves as an example. Graphical analysis on the basis of three parameters, namely, GRP, number of employed in the economy, and labor productivity, made it possible to decompose the branch shift of regional economies into the following components: DIF effect (contribution of a branch’s internal efficiency), MIX effect (effect of the structure of the regional economy), and the effect of national development factors. The detection of branches capable of being growth drivers for the region will make it possible for regional efficiency management entities to purposefully create favorable conditions and stimuli for the balanced development of the region.