Глава 6. Теория цикла под ударом кризиса
This paper is devoted to the influence of standardization on emergence and development of global value chains (GVC). Nowadays trade in value added is the subject for heated debates. However, the role of standardization (in particular, international standardization) is highly underestimated. The study examines the history of the development of different types of standards, comparing different approaches to modeling the processes of standardization and develops recommendations for the economic policy of Russia on the basis of its present position in the GVC. At the moment, we can say unambiguously that standardization leads to the shift of firms from upstream stages of production to the field of design and marketing, where a greater chance to realize competitive advantages exists (downstream stages). For Russia, it means continuous improvement in the following areas: the development of large and small businesses in sectors that are not related to the energy, encouraging companies to establish supply chains and value chains, customer orientated businesses. In addition to the positive effects of standardization, the article also reviews some negative shocks. They occur when the standards are being introduced to small firms, or when accepted standards are not harmonized in accordance with international standards, or when there are no resources for modernization within the global value chain, or when there are no opportunities to move into new markets where standardization is lower, or when different standards are set to reach controversial objectives. Nevertheless, in all these cases, there are certain conditions which implementation will make standardization the most effective. These include, for example, a balance between the amount of the factor used in the production and the complexity of the technology. This condition is explained here both mathematically and by the example of the Chinese national program for certification of organic products. Thus, the importance of international standardization for the development of global value chains cannot be overstated, despite possible negative effects. That is why Russia should be actively involved in all of these processes in order to stimulate economic growth.
A Chapter is devoted to the prerequisites, priorities and prospects of development of regional integration of Russia in the post-Soviet space and in the world, and also the problems of the country's participation in international organizations. It also considers the issues of participation of Russia in WTO.
The report “Russia and the World: 2016. Annual Forecast: Economy and Foreign Policy” continues the series of yearly publications of the Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Russian Academy of Science, Center for Situation Analysis (CSA), Russian Academy of Science and Foundation for Prospective Studies and Initiatives. It consists of two parts: “Economy” and “Foreign Policy”. Part I focuses upon Russian foreign tradeeconomic relations and analysis and forecast of the world (Russia, Europe, the USA, Japan, India) economic trends in 2015-2016, including international financial markets and main Russian export markets. The report is based on the decades long IMEMO experience in forecast research. Part II presents the forecast of international relations for 2016, it analyzes main challenges for Russia and options to respond them.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
The latest issue of the “West – East – Russia” Yearbook covers major trends and events of 2016 related to interactions between the global Center, Periphery and Semi-Periphery. Russia’s interests and positions in that setup is another major theme. The main topics of the panorama 2016 are the probable shifts in the global system as a result of Donald Tramp’s presidency in the USA and “Brexit” in Europe, problems of BRICS and post-soviet states. These and other aspects are examined not only in global dimension, but also in separate regions (including East Asia, Latin America, CIS etc.). As usual, there is some information on ecological matters, academic activities and recently published books.