Глава 6. Теория цикла под ударом кризиса
This paper is devoted to the influence of standardization on emergence and development of global value chains (GVC). Nowadays trade in value added is the subject for heated debates. However, the role of standardization (in particular, international standardization) is highly underestimated. The study examines the history of the development of different types of standards, comparing different approaches to modeling the processes of standardization and develops recommendations for the economic policy of Russia on the basis of its present position in the GVC. At the moment, we can say unambiguously that standardization leads to the shift of firms from upstream stages of production to the field of design and marketing, where a greater chance to realize competitive advantages exists (downstream stages). For Russia, it means continuous improvement in the following areas: the development of large and small businesses in sectors that are not related to the energy, encouraging companies to establish supply chains and value chains, customer orientated businesses. In addition to the positive effects of standardization, the article also reviews some negative shocks. They occur when the standards are being introduced to small firms, or when accepted standards are not harmonized in accordance with international standards, or when there are no resources for modernization within the global value chain, or when there are no opportunities to move into new markets where standardization is lower, or when different standards are set to reach controversial objectives. Nevertheless, in all these cases, there are certain conditions which implementation will make standardization the most effective. These include, for example, a balance between the amount of the factor used in the production and the complexity of the technology. This condition is explained here both mathematically and by the example of the Chinese national program for certification of organic products. Thus, the importance of international standardization for the development of global value chains cannot be overstated, despite possible negative effects. That is why Russia should be actively involved in all of these processes in order to stimulate economic growth.
What is "new normal' in a post-crisis context? The contributors from the Institute of Global Economy and International Relations IIMEMO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences try to find an answer to that question by rethinking the new reality in different dimensions: economic, social and political. They analyze the search for new models of economic growth and for new approaches to financial markets regulation, the peculiarities of innovation policies and the latest developments in the oil and gas sector, the new corporate map of the world where state-owned companies are struggling to regain a special place. The social sphere is changing in strong correlation with the economy: governments are searching for adequate response to the challenges of social imbalances and migration; governments' policies are reshaped under the pressure of the democratic views of the 21st century individuals. These problems are typical of all countries, but are of particular relevance in the case of the 'new periphery' countries - the post-communist states. New trends are emerging on the political arena as well, where new realities are forming within a system of international relations - the process which becomes evident when we take a look at the transatlantic relations and the bilateral relations of USA and China. The very paradigm of international security is undergoing major transformation in the post-crisis period. The contributors illustrate this trend by analyzing selected examples of conflict settlement in AfPak and the Middle East regions. The crisis had a significant impact on the European integration as well.
The study book will be of interest not only to professional economists, sociologists and experts in international relations but also to a wider audience interested in to the current trends in global development.
A Chapter is devoted to the prerequisites, priorities and prospects of development of regional integration of Russia in the post-Soviet space and in the world, and also the problems of the country's participation in international organizations. It also considers the issues of participation of Russia in WTO.