Природные ресурсы Шпицбергена и проекты преобразования русских морских промыслов в XVIII в.
The book is the first collection of documents in Russian historical science covering the practice of organizing navigation and developing the natural resources of the Spitsbergen archipelago in the 18th-early 20th centuries. XIX century. The Russian state and Pomor people are residents of the Russian North. The publication is preceded by a study that examines the most significant aspects of the topic, as well as various problems and approaches to them in domestic and foreign historiography.On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the sources of different species and their cross-matching, the full picture of the development of Russian crafts in Spitsbergen in the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century was compiled, as far as possible. Archival documents first introduced into scientific circulation, as well as additional materials included in the annexes, will significantly expand the possibilities for further research on the history of the Russian presence in Spitsbergen and, more broadly, Russia's role in the development of the European part of the Arctic, will allow them to be introduced into the international context that is necessary for understanding the history of the development of this Arctic archipelago.
The paper deals with one of the first enterprise-monopolist, this establishment marked the starting point of the era in the history of Russian marine harvesting known as «The time of monopolies». This company established in 1703 and since the next year got control over the blubber trade in the Russian North. Alexander Menshikov being one of the major shareholders gave his name to the monopoly. The paper explores the market and hunting activities of the company, organizational structure and the interrelations between the shareholders and the personnel. The special role of the administrative support in order to prevent illegal blubber trade in the financial success of the company deserves special attention
In recent years researches on resources history have been actively developing in the broader direction of environmental history. The constructivist approach helps to see natural resources as material objects that become resources only when actors interested in them prescribe certain qualities to them and relate its use to achieving one’s goals. This article considers the issue of creation of the Soviet coal-mining trust “Arktikugol” on Spitsbergen in 1931–1932 for the needs of industrialization in the north of the European part of the USSR from the standpoint of social constructivism.
This article explores the history of the Russian monopolistic companies that operated in the international market for blubber in the first half of the eighteenth century. It argues that the long-held view that the companies were unsuccessful is not supported by the statistics relating to the trade, which indicate impressive progress in terms of market revenue and the redistribution of profits. Moreover, the authorities had ambitious strategic goals for the project as a whole that entailed more than simple commercial success. The companies, in fact, were perceived as an instrument that would transform landlocked Muscovy into a leading power in the international maritime economy. The article analyzes the essence and the consequences of these conflicting perspectives.