The chapter deals with the ambiguities of informal entrepreneurial activity and its specific contextual framing under transition in Russia as an example of a fragile mid-income economy. It stresses the transition-specific reasons of its sustainability, contrary to the most current literature explaining it as a the Soviet heritage etc. (the 'path dependence' argument). The author uses the results of the two first waves of the own longitudinal survey of 13 Muscovite entrepreneurs and start-ups (2013-2014). The paper contains some policy recommendations.
The paper covers the modern practices of application of the audience measurements results within large Russian TV channels. The audience measurements are the important source of parameters for mass media performance evaluation. They got traction in all segments of mass information, among which television is the most popular, effective from the point of view of impact and affecting the wide range of target groups. The goal of the research presented by the author in this paper is the study of one of the elements of television company performance – media measurement based on the practices of the audience research in the leading Russian TV companies. To implement the target goal, the author carries out the in-depth interviews with the heads of the audience research departments within Russian TV channels. The in-depth interviews touched upon such subjects as the structure of the audience inner analysis department, types of research carried out or ordered by a television company, the department staff duties, the influence of obtained data on a TV channel viewing grid, and the special aspects of obtaining mediameasurements in the regions. The author analyzes and summarizes the obtained data, considers the main directions of the research results application in the TV channels activity, which are the important integral part when studying the whole media-measuring field. The author is the first who attempts to study the audience analysis practices within media companies basing on the experience of the audience measuring departments within Russian television channels. Based on the results of the research, the author determined such problems as the insufficient knowledge of audience in the regions, the limitation of research activity of many channels only by the “TNS Russia” data secondary analysis. The author specifies the differences in the research activity and the application of media measurement data within commercial and state television channels.