Производство визуального медиапродукта как социальная практика (случай международных информагентств)
The paper aims to show a research subject that has been disregarded in visual studies: the professional production of news photography. Using the methodology developed in sociology of everyday life and in research of professional practices we can approach the production of images in international wire services. Thus, elaborated conceptual framework allows elucidating the basic rules that govern the process of the news visualization. Our research on photo department of wire service shows that those rules are a combination of journalistic logic and professionally formed ideas of visual.
PRODUCTION OF NEWS PHOTOGRAPHY: ANALYTICAL RESOURCES OF SOCIAL SCIENCES The article focuses on the process of production of news photographs. News photographs, created by leading information agencies, occupy a significant place in the visual flow that surrounds modern man, however their production is practically not investigated. Proposed by the author revision of approaches, developed in the context of visual researches and sociology of journalism, promotes designation of fundamental principles of microanalysis of visual production. For their detalization the materials of fieldwork conducted in Moscow bureaus of international wire services (interviews and participant observation) carried out by the author are used.
The article is devoted to the history and development of the first and largest information agency EFE. The author reveals the priorities and behavior of journalists in the agency, as well as a special place that takes agency in the promotion of the Spanish language.
The present article is devoted to the problem of effective methods of PR and advertising on the example of the Department «EFEverde» of the Spanish news agency EFE. The author analyzes the ways and principles of work of the journalists of the agency EFEverde, the way they participate in the social life and the methods to attract our attention to the problem of the pollution. The agency doesn’t need any cheap advertising and «black PR» because it applies another more affective methods such us: on-line cooperation with the readers, massive educational programs for journalists, cooperation with the Academy of the Spanish language and others.
Photo-elicitation interview in the research of professional production of the visual.
The paper considers sociological appliance of one of the visual methods – photo-elicitation interview. The method implies interviews that use photographs as stimuli for informants’ responses and reflection. Despite the interest in visual culture in the contemporary social sciences the method is hardly ever used in the analysis of its production. There are works with photo-elicitation interviews that include the analysis of visual dimensions of the researched phenomena as well as photographic conventions. However the photo-elicitation interviews have not been used in order to get the narratives of the professional producers of the visual.
The author presents her own experience of using the method in the research of production of news images and shows its advantages and difficulties. The research was focused on the production process in the practice of employee of the photo department of major wire services. The ethnographic observation of the work of the photo departments showed that the photography should not be considered as something that appears at the end of the «production chain». Rather it should be noted that photography is present in all everyday practices of photojournalists. The traditional interviews allowed grasping the principles that guide the news images production in wire services. However, the informants had difficulties in giving examples and demonstrating how those principles are applied or missed in their professional practices. Thus, the photo-elicitation method was used so that the informant could have their own news photographs to rely on while sharing their experience. Moreover, the questions concerning concrete visual decisions were easier to ask having actual examples before the eyes. The photo-elicitation interviews made possible to study the practices of deviance from the visual format of wire services, to get the narratives on professional practices beyond self-representations of professionals, to contextualize the decision-making process concerning visual and to see the backstage of profession. The method proved to be fruitful for studies of professional production of the visual as well as for the studies of professional practices and the principles of visualization.