Презумпции в английском праве
The article describes the history of development of the English law and the scien-
tific and practical approaches reflecting concepts of judicial interpretation in England,
value of interpretation and construction at a stage of application the law, the author does
the conclusion about formation of the English doctrine of statutory interpretation.
The article describes scientific and practical approaches that reflect the statutory interpretation concepts in modern Russia, the author does their comparative analysis with the English statutory interpretation doctrine, actualizes the significance of the interpretation in laws application stage, institutes and justifies the term «construction-in-application», features cognitive and law-enforcement forms of interpretation, reveals similar aspects and distinctions of approaches to law interpretation in Russia and England.
In my paper I will analyze decisions of the Russian Constitutional Court and courts of general jurisdiction, in which they interpret ordinary and seemingly unambiguous words and phrases. In a number of cases this interpretation is made in a manner, which is suspect from a linguistic point of view. The analysis shows that there is no consistency in the application by Russian courts of the ‘‘plain language’’ rule and that literal interpretation may be used selectively as a means of legitimizing the decisions made on non-linguistic grounds. Though literal interpretation can be often incompatible with the concept of justice and therefore judges should also take into account other criteria, there are examples of court decisions, in which literal interpretation would have been more appropriate from the perspective of justice, separation of powers and human rights. The article shows how use and misuse of language by judges is employed as a tool in judicial decision-making.