Оспаривая либеральную демократию: Ян-Вернер Мюллер о политическом опыте Европы XX века [О книге: Mueller J.-W. Contesting Democracy: Political Ideas in the Twetieth-Century Europe. Yale: Yale University Press, 2013].
The article is devoted to the analysis of main lines of investigations of political ideas and thinkers in the twentieth-century Europe, which was offered by Jean-Werner Mueller in his brilliant book "Contesting Democracy: Political Ideas in the Twentieth-Century Europe" (2013).
Stretching from the end of the Middle Ages to the Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1500-1900), the authors in this volume analyze spiritual kinship in Europe and its associated social customs - with special attention given to godparenthood. These customs had great importance for Early Modern and Modern European societies, and this collection represents an interdisciplinary effort to combine the work of social and economic historians, historical demographers, anthropologists and sociologists. Arranged chronologically and geographically, chapters cover specific areas of the European continent, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Reconstructing changes in theological thought about spiritual kinship, particularly before and after the Reformation, and comparing Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox views and practices, Spiritual Kinship in Europe provides a comprehensive picture of how social practices and religious ideas related to spiritual kinship and godparenthood.
This paper deals with analysis of the principal ideas of the book “Controversies in Natural Law from Zeno to Grotius. Two competing ideas in the history of Natural Law: law as human reason versus law as God’s command” where Dr. Anna Taitslin considers the history of natural law ideas in the Western Europe. Development of iusnaturalist conceptions can be explained through competition of two basic principles – voluntarism and intellectualism. This opposition has been formulated as early as in the Stoic philosophy and by the Early Church Fathers. In the High Middle Ages and in the Renaissance these two principles have been thoroughly elaborated by the Scholiasts. Although, in Dr. Taitslin’s opinion, one cannot find any examples of successful and consistent synthesis of voluntarism and intellectualism in the history of ideas. At the same time, this aspect of the history of political ideas is important for the contemporary philosophical discussions about human rights, as these rights are conceptually rooted into the idea of natural law which can be described through opposition of voluntarism and intellectualism.
In his article the author considers one of the key phenomenon of the Russian intellectual culture – university as the condition of Russian elite entering the level of a European civilization, and moreover as the element, that contributed to Europeasation of the whole country. The tragedy of Russian education can clearly be seen in the fate of Russian universities. The autocracy tried to limit the freedom of science, and Bolsheviks simply exiled the Russian professorate from the country.
This article of the International Epidemiological Association commissioned paper series stocktakes the population health and status of epidemiology in 21 of the 53 countries of the WHO European Region. Published data were used to describe population health indicators and risk factors. Epidemiological training and research was assessed based on author knowledge, information searches and E-mail survey of experts. Bibliometric analyses determined epidemiological publication outputs.
Between-country differences in life expectancy, amount and profile of disease burden and prevalence of risk factors are marked. Epidemiological training is affected by ongoing structural reforms of educational systems. Training is advanced in Israel and several Eastern European countries. Epidemiological research is mainly university-based in most countries, but predominantly conducted by governmental research institutes in several countries of the former Soviet Union. Funding is generally external and limited, partially due to competition from and prioritization of biomedical research. Multiple relevant professional societies exist, especially in
Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Few of the region’s 39 epidemiological academic journals have international currency. The number of epidemiological publications per population is highest for Israel and lowest for South-Central Asian countries.
Epidemiological capacity will continue to be heterogeneous across the region and depend more on countries’ individual historical, social, political and economic conditions and contexts than their epidemiologists’ successive efforts
Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) was an exemplary representative of counterrevolutionnary ideology during the late Enlightenment and Romantism. Now. in retrospect, he is seen to be a subtle qnd cqustic critic of the ideas of Enlightenment, showing the impossibility of fighting these ideas with purely rational arguments without recourse to archaic ideqs qnd legends of the "eternel" social structure. Joseph de Maistre spent many years in Russia, establishing a number of intellectual contacts there and becoming one of the first Europeans to try to correlate Western European ideas and the traditions of Russia.