This paper discusses notes and marginalia left by Trediakovsky in his copy of Lomonosov’s Rhetoric (1748), compared to the corrections made by Lomonosov in the second edition of his book (1759); one of the points of this discussion is to evaluate S. I. Nikolaev’s hypothesis, that Trediakovsky’s notes had notably influenced Lomonosov. Among 310 Trediakovsky’ notes and over 400 Lomonosov’s corrections only 37 correspond each other. These cases are studied individually, using a) manuscript and proofsheets of the 1748 edition of the Rhetoric; b) the full body of corrections in 1759 edition; c) Lomonosov’s work in preparing his Russian grammar (1755); d) lexics of Lomonosow’s works and documents; e) literary and language polemics of 1740–1750’s. The analysis makes it clear, that the second edition of Lomonosov’s Rhetoric was corrected independently of the Trediakovsky’s notes (only four cases may be questioned), based on Lomonosov’s own style and language theory, which developed in 1740–1750’s and was partly obliged to Trediakovsky’s polemical writings. The appendix offers addenda to the corpus of Trediakovsky’s notes as published by M. I. Sukhomlinov.