This article analyses the processes concerned with evolution and functioning of the image of «Archer/Centaur» in the 1 st millennium BC. This image should not be perceived as a common citation from the antique figurative context since, in the West-Asiatic art, the image of Sagittarius had received its visual form still earlier. In denotation of the Sagittarius constellation in Mesopotamia, no abstract symbol is used but exclusively the proper name of Pabilsag. In visual art, Pabilsag is represented by the image of Centaur The Archer known in the art of Mesopotamia since the Kassite and middle Assyrian times. Comparative analysis of petroglyphs of Zhaltyrak-Tash, the representations on the swords from Kelermes Kurgan № 1 and those from the Melgunov barrow helps us much to understand the specifics of formation of the image of Pabilsag (Sagittarius). Keywords: Sagittarius, Centaur, Catasterismi, Mesopotamian art of the 1st millennium BC, art of Eurasian nomads of the 1st millennium BC, Kelermes barrow No 1, Melgunov barrow, Zhaltyrak-Tash.