Financial Flows and Austrian Reconstruction Following World War I
Collection of articles dedicated to the activities of the outstanding French historian E. Le Roy Ladurie. The various aspects of his multifaceted work: historical anthropology, the history of climate, cliometrics, economic history, history of the peasantry, visual anthropology, etc., and especially the perception of his work by the teaching community of different countries.
This article consists of a series of short essays dedicated to a certain chapter of the 'popular' socioeconomic history (with a particular focus on the institutional development problems) of the former East Prussia from the Antiquity to present days. The authors tackle the issues of the economic history of amber, the role of the Hanse in the development of medieval trade, the QWERTY-effects in rail rack standards, and the peculiarities of the development of the Kaliningrad region in the post-Soviet period.
The paper analyzes the characteristics of perception of creativity E. Le Roy Ladurie in the USSR and Russia. Pathways of information was the academic medievalists reviews, reviews of professional critics of bourgeois historiography, abstract journals and collections. During the perestroika years the popularity of Le Roy Ladurie has increased significantly, but the introduction to his work was limited by methodological declarations, not research monographs.
The article examines the history of using wood and timber wastes and annual plants as well as in the Soviet Union from the 1950s to the1960s. In the middle of the twentieth century, century Soviet leadership, producers, and scientists expressed their anxiety about the lack of forests near pulp and paper plants, and started looking for alternative raw materials. Modernization during the same period witnessed a number of initiatives to use different sources for pulp production, ranging from wood and timber wastes to reed and annual plants. It included attempts to develop low-waste and non-waste industrial technologies. In most cases, however, this search did not transform the supply of raw materials. Instead, most factories continued manufacturing pulp and pulp-based products using wood, and thus kept cutting and exploring undisturbed forests, in particular those in Siberia. In this article, I investigate the attempted use of alternative resources in industrial operations and examine why employing these materials, was not successful in the Soviet Union in the 1950s-1960s. I am interested in the organizational and technological aspects of how forestry developed and used resources in the Soviet Union. I illustrate how technologies circulated not only within the country, but also between the USSR and Western countries. The article contends that new practices did not change wasteful wood-use practices, in large part because the industry continued to contend with infrastructural and organizational obstacles while attempting to introduce alternative resources
There is now a very extensive and well-developed theoretical literature on the difficulties faced by durable goods monopolists in pricing their products. Surprisingly, the seminal article in this field did not come from a formal economic theorist but from Ronald Coase. Coase wanted to show that there are situations under which a pure monopolist might not be able to charge a monopoly price for durable products. The literature has since expanded to consider all manner of theoretical and formal conditions under which this hypothesis might or might not hold. And scholars have claimed that this body of work provides insights into everything from strategic leases to planned obsolescence and the problem of new model introductions. But how well has this literature really served to illuminate the problems facing actual business firms? While the safety razor industry has often been invoked as an example of durable goods pricing there has only been limited investigation into the actual behavior of the dominant firm in this industry – Gillette. We consider here the major ideas that have developed as an offshoot of the original Coase paper and the extent to which a case study of Gillette confirms or confounds this analysis.
The article is dedicated to the work of S.Yu. Witte by rail. The period of his work in the joint-stock company of the South-Western Railways, his journalistic and expert activity in the railway field at this time is considered. The article provides an overview of Witte’s views on the system of railway freight tariffs formulated in his book Principles of Railway Tariffs for the Carriage of Goods (1883) and analyzed his views on the private and government railway facilities