Происхождение «права отъезда» на Руси
The author examines the origins of the so called "right for departure" - a right of nobles to leave one king and to enter an other's service in medieval Rus'. He considers as crucial the question why this right dating back to early times was fixed in writing only in the 14th century.
The anthology provides a very first overview of the history of the Innsbruck Court from the 15th century to the end of the Ancien Régime, thus meeting a substantial research desideratum. It is the result of a colloquium that took place on 6 and 7 June 2002 in Innsbruck, organised by the Historic Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Institute for History at Innsbruck University. No fewer than 13 authors from England, the Czech Republic, Russia, Italy, Germany and Austria analysed the functions, change and appearance of what was largely a residential court that has also had a lasting influence on the visual appearance of the city.
The first section analyses standards and representation, the second deals with the festivities at court and forms of symbioses of court and city, a third section examines the role and cultural transfer functions of women at court and a final chapter gives thought to questions of regional integration. The contributions give, for the first time, a greater preciseness to what was known of the Innsbruck court. In particular, it has made it possible to better determine the position of Tyrolean court society as a mediator and, the old topic of the city of Innsbruck as a conveyer of culture and as a transit station on the way to Italy, particularly during the Renaissance, was able to be identified more precisely. The Innsbruck court acted as a significant link in the intra- and inter-dynastic exchange of pre-modern Europe.
The book for individual reading in legal English is aimed at students in law. Each part of the book contains several non-fictional texts, tasks for understanding and practicing new vocabulary. The book will help students to thoroughly study each topic either individually, or during classes. The book can be also useful for those who study English in the sphere of law.
Early polities are often called as tributary (from Latin tributum). It is a question of great importance but also of great difficulty which tributes (taxes) the Rus’ collected from the subjugated population in the 9-11th centuries. The oldest Rus’ian chronicle texts contain several references about an extraction of some taxes in favor of the Rus’, but these references are difficult to understand. The author interprets the chronicle reports with these references taking two approaches: 1) it is taken for granted that the chronicle preceding to “The Tale of Bygone Years” is preserved in the so-called Novgorod First Chronicle of Younger Redaction, and 2) the chronicle reports are compared with the evidence of non-Rus’ian origin (the treaties by Constantine Porphyrogentis, the Arabian geographers’ accounts from the 9-11th centuries etc.). The most important conclusions drawn by the author are: 1) the tribute rate matched to the “standards” common in Eastern Europe in the 9-11th centuries, and this was in fact a fur skin which corresponded in prize to 4-7 g silver, 2) the Rus’ian ruling class collected the tribute (dan’) during the yearly circuit around the subjugated territory, extracting also some naturalia for feeding as “gifts”; both the circuits and the naturalia were called as poliud’e, 3) the evidence on both the tribute rate and methods of extracting the tribute comes from different regions of Old Rus’ – from Novgorod to Kiev. This fact shows that the basic principles of tax system which the Rus’ applied to the subjugated territories were the same anywhere. These principles laid a foundation for the “tributary” dominance of the Rus’ in the 9-11th centuries.