Web 2.0 and the actualization of the ideals of adult education
In my previous publication I tried to show how personal data legislation may be used for achieving national sovereignty purposes. In this one I will demonstrate how open source software may be used for achieving similar purposes. However, interplay between local copyright law, public procurement law and open source community norms create lots of issues relating to the legal status and ownership in modified software based on open source. It becomes especially actual in cases with so-called copyleft open source licenses, where a collision occures between copyright as an absolute right enforceable against the world and the copyleft provisions of license agreement, which may be treated as “rights in personam” enforceable only against the licensee. Exclusive right to derivative software as an independent object of copyright may come into conflict with restrictions inherited from incoming copyleft license. This paper provides an overview and analysis of such problems faced by Russian software developers attempting to comply with Russian import substitution provisions by using open source components. Although, it is based on Russian law, it may be applicable to other jurisdictions, since it is driven by general aspects of copyright law and its interaction with private international law and contract law. The paper concludes that the developer of software, containing code licensed under GPL or other copyleft provisions receives full exclusive right to the derivative software and can commercialize it as he sees appropriate, subject only to possible claims on breach of contract, not on copyright infringement. This opens wide perspectives for using open source components regardless of the type of license used as bricks for building de-globalized economy and society based on information sovereignty principles.
Alexander Savelyev. Russia’s new personal data localization regulations: A step forward or a self-imposed sanction? // Computer Law & Security Review. Volume 32/1, 2016. P. 128-145.
The aging of the Russian population and the rapid shrinking of its labor force in coming decades will make the human capital each worker contributes increasingly vital for sustaining economic output and growth. While improvements in general education are necessary to build the foundation for a productive future labor force, a broad-based and effective system of adult education can provide second-chance opportunities for current workers to enhance their productivity and lengthen their working lives and for low-skilled immigrants to be integrated into the workforce. How well the Russian Federation addresses these multiple needs at and beyond the workplace will depend on how effective its adult education system is. This study targeting policymakers outlines the problems of Russia's growing skills gap, especially the shortage of higher-order cognitive and socio-emotional skills, and examines the current state of adult education.
Development of the human capital of modern adult population in many respects identified by the level of attained education. Educational projects of OECD, and in particular the PIAAC (The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies), shows considerable influence of achievements in core competencies on follow-up professional activity, including specialists of working professions, that have gained primary secondary vocational education degree.
The author’s views on the essence of educational objectives and outcomes, on their interrelation in the area of general education, on specifics of pedagogical goal-setting, on the structure of the hierarchical system of educational objectives have been forming throughout almost 60 years of professional educational work. He represents common objectives of school education as a three-level system: development of the ability to choose some lifestyle that is appropriate to the current society development trends; shaping the experience of solving cognitive, communicative and other problems relevant to students without assistance; learning of work methods that are applicable to school practice and beyond it.
In this article, we outline how changes in our information ecosystem are creating new opportunities to support human resource development in advanced and developing economies.
The emergence of so-called “free” or “open source” software and the growth of its economic importance in various industries makes questions regarding the legal status of free/open source licenses especially important. In December 2010 new draft amendments to the Russia’s Civil Code were published, introducing new concepts in order to reflect the ideas pursued by these types of licenses. This article analyzes existing problems with the legal status of free/open source licenses, whether proposed amendments may solve them, and what risks they may create. Since Russia is among the first countries trying to include provisions on free/open source licenses in its legislation, such analysis may be of interest to foreign lawmakers since the concept of open source is universal all over the world.