Quick economic development on India dictates the necessity of its energy base improvement. One could hardly overestimate the importance of so called seven sisters or seven states of North-East India. One of these states is Nagaland (16 579 км2, population -1, 980, 602), the first tribal state of India. There are deposits of gold, uranium, chromium, jade, natural gas and oil. This is the first state in the region having created a special Agency for renewable energy. The article is dedicated to the problems of energy development in the state.
The issue of energy has been one of the reasons behind the creation of the G7 mechanism and with later added climate change problem, it remains high on the G8 agenda. The major powers of the West needed to coordinate their efforts in order to confront the new challenges: the need to ensure security of energy supply, introduce energy saving and energy efficient technologies and make sure that leading industrial countries can afford proper economic development with the adequate and unhampered energy supply. The global energy system has come through three major stages, with the last system structure still being in the making – with all the stakeholders, namely producer, consumer and transit states, big transnational energy corporations and national energy companies, still going through grand reshuffle and redistribution of “decision-making vs. accepting the rules of the games” roles. The G8 in general follows the suit along the lines of changes introduced within the global energy architecture fluctuations. As for the club’s activities, there is a way to provisionally single out five phases in the G7/G8 energy activities. During the times of the two energy crises – 1970s – early 1980s energy security issues took a prominent place on the G7 agenda. Further on during the period of much lower prices and sustainable excess of supply over demand this issue became second rate and was mentioned only within the environmental context. End of 1980s – early 1990s, after the demise of the Soviet Union and the socialist block falling apart the main focus of the G7 lead178 Part III. Critical cCase sStudies ers was shifted to the problems of nuclear security (not only as an environmental issue, especially after Chernobyl AES accident of 1986, but also in the light of growing risks of proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. After 2000 energy security in its own right recaptured the attention of the G8 countries, with the so popular climate change issue being not only ecological, economic and political issue, but also intensified to a certain extent a PR and market-oriented reaction of the hydrocarbon consuming actors to the sky-rocketed oil prices. The fifth phase is still to be introduced and developed by the G8+ participants, since the current global financial and economic crisis has brought its own differentials into the process.
Recognizing the importance of energy for sustainable development, the United Nations General Assembly has designated the year 2012 as the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. Sustainable development concept. Humans living on the Earth shall recognize that nature is their habitat and their only source of existence. Attitudes to the economy and nature are moral issues relevant to the destiny of not only current but future generations. To deal with these issues it is necessary to enhance the spirit of people who choose paths, realize strategies, and participate in economic development and in life itself. In the history of economic development one can distinguish four main periods regarding human attitudes to nature.
This study focuses on such a complex issue as an energy security. The energy security is often considered from the consumer's point of view. But it's an "umbrella term", covering a lot of concerns. This study looks at how the concept of demand security came about and how it evolved. The chapter examines requests of consuming and producing countries. Energy has a significant role in the relations between Russia and EU and this case is considered in the chapter.
The article presents analysis of the G8 and G20 activities in the spheres of energy and climate change for the period of 2008-2010. The establishment of an effective post-Kyoto climate regime and the global energy security (in a broad sense), in the eyes of the author, were the key problems that defined the range of issues within energy and climate change areas at the G8 and G20 summits during the period of analysis. The author shows the evolution of the issues within each institution and observes the division of labour between the G8 and G20. The conclusion is made that the division of labour between two institutions should be based on the principle of comparative advantage - the issue should be included in the agenda of the institution, which can effectively solve the problem with a higher probability. In that case, the G8 and G20 will reinforce each other's realization of global governance functions.
The Handbook brins together energy security experts to explore the implications of framing the energy debates in security terms, both in respect of the governance of energy systems and the practices associated with energy security.
We reviewed the output of research and innovation cooperation between Russia and the US, including publications and patents, in the four prospective areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy during 2007-2011. Joint US-Russia research groups appear to focus primarily on hydrogen energy (fuel cells), followed by solar photovoltaics. The upcoming areas of smart grid and biofuels were left out entirely both from research and innovation collaboration. Russian patents in green energy technologies registered in the US are very low in comparison to those from Japan, Korea, and China.