Contemporary Russian Orthodoxy: From the Social Paradoxes to the Cultural Model
This work is focused on the cultural model of contemporary Russian Orthodoxy, its complexities and socio-cultural paradoxes. While analyzing the Church communicative culture it is shown specifics of the vertically hierarchical and horizontally network relations in the Church social milieu. Specifics of the principle of hierarchy, as the most important element of the Orthodox identity influencing almost all institutionally stipulated forms of the relations among Church actors are depicted. The questions of vocational guidance in the orthodox environment, culture of trust between authors in different levels strata and self-organization questions were also analysed.
This chapter is devoted to the study of performative solidarities (Alexander 2006, 2008) which became an important part of the discourses on identity and historic heritage in the post-Soviet countries and the process of value change. The mechanism of emergence of such discourses and their course and consequences are studied in Russia and Estonia.
The article is devoted to analysis of concepts reputation and reputation management in conditions of modern Russian political reality. The author tries to determine positions of reputation communications in political sphere of Russia, which have a goal of social trust (base of strong civil society) development.
The collection represents the materials of the 2nd International scientific conference “The theoretical problems of ethnic and cross-cultural psychology” May, 30-31, 2014 held by Smolensk University for Humanities. The participants from Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Israel, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Republic of Korea, Ukraine, Uzbekistan shared their methodological and theoretical approaches to such basic scientific issues as transformation of the ethnic identity, cultural influence on the personality, cross-cultural interaction, ethnic conflicts, migration and acculturation psychology, ethnic socialization, policultural formation. The book might be of interest for psychologists, ethnologists, philosophers, anthropologists and other specialists working with ethnic and cross-cultural psychology.
The book is comprised of 24 studies examining the changes in values throughout the process of transformation in the post-communist countries and, in general, the questions of values, their conceptualization and research as well as their role in the process of transformation and stratification. The studies present a new concept of empirical sociological study of values, cultural resources in class reproduction and ideology, problems of hedonism, social trust, cohesion, historical and cultural tradition and many other aspects of development of value structure in post-communist societies.
This work is analyzing the Icon of the Last Judgment, which is most probably painted in the Yaroslavl region. Many striking and evocative images in the Last Judgment icon present a clear, interesting, representative and comprehensive catalog of the complex theological concepts connected to the Last Judgment theme as they evolved during the 17th century. Its iconography exemplifies all the teachings of Russian Orthodox tradition and includes additional Bible-based subjects not found in standard Christian doctrine; for example, the representation of “Outcast Nations” argues that different peoples enjoy different degrees of access to salvation, and that some peoples, to the mind of 17th-century Russian society, are beyond salvation. There is also attention to the Russian social context, and some depictions show that the artist or artists who created the icon grappled with social questions, attempting to categorize sinners who were condemned by Russian society at that time. An example of such itemization is the group who sinned by excessive drinking, which, unusually, is depicted separately from other groups of sinners and, it is implied, are to be treated with more than the traditional level of mercy.
Consideration of trust and distrust as relatively autonomous psychological phenomena been indicated in 50-70-ies of the XXth century in the works by M. Deutsch, G. Mellinger, B.F. Porshnev, W. Read, etc. A more simplified approach to the problem of the correlation between trust and distrust has spread later as of these phenomena were seen as contradictory, conflicting, and thus interconnected. However, in recent years, an increasing number of works that shows that the trust and distrust as psychological phenomena are largely independent from one another. The study of distrust is important due to the fact that in real social interaction the conflicts, differences in goals and values as well as in norms and rules of conduct are typical. Interaction often takes place in conditions of high uncertainty, in the absence of regulation and control capabilities. In such circumstances, the most effective form of relationship is the balance of optimal levels of trust and distrust. Similar trends of social life determine the high relevance of joint analysis of trust and distrust as relatively independent phenomena that perform specific functions in the regulation of life of the individual and the group. This joint analysis is the goal of our study. As a result of theoretical and empirical research the definition of trust and distrust as mutually exclusive phenomena of polar valence has been proved wrong. The analysis of the conditions under which individuals are capable of simultaneously trusting and not trusting each other have been implemented. Conditions of ambivalence of trust and distrust are, first, the multidimensional and dynamic relationship between people, and second, a partner in the interaction having contradictory qualities, and third, high subjective assessment of risks arising from the high trust and openness of an individual (the subject) and partner for interaction, fourth, the contradictory attitudes of the subject to a number of individual traits of a person under assessment.