Даниель Тороитич арап Мои
The cahpter is devoted to the life and activities of Daniel arap Moi, Kenya's second president.
The chapter analyses Kenya's history from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. The author presents colonial transformation of Kenya's society, and itd development in the post-colonial period. Much attention is paid to anti-colonial struggle, in particular to the formation of political parties and to the anti-colonial uprising, Mau Mau. The political trajectory of the country after it proclaimed independence is followed in detail.
The social-psychological adaptation of Russian migrants and their descendants in Kenya is studied. The data collected allowed us to conclude that Russians were well adapted to the unusual cultural and natural environment. They were characterized by high level of life activity and tolerance. The Russians which have settled in Kenya a long time ago were well-doing economically and socially and had a sustainable social interactions with other Russians, Europeans and Africans. Many Russian men and women, living in Africa since a long time, had a high social position, being the owners of their own well-managed businesses. The specific peculiarities of Kenya in comparison with other African countries were discussed.
The availability and cost of child care play an important role in the decisions that households make about allocating labor and choosing between informal home care and ECD.A mother’s decision to join the labor force is based on her expected earnings compared with the costs of available day care. Insufficient child care options could be a barrier for women with children to join the labor force (for example, Kimmel 1998). The custodial role of ECD centers frees female household members for other activities and allows mothers to enter the labor market. The additional income newly employed mothers bring home can be significant and may lift some households out of poverty. In the longer term, the increased work experience may also lead to increased job skills and higher earnings for household members. Better employment options, in turn, may decrease the reliance of low-income families on government subsidies and increase their self-sufficiency.Research in developing countries also indicates that females other than the mother, especially young daughters, provide free child care, releasing mothers for paid work (for example, Deutsch 1998). For example, Psacharopoulos and Arriagada (1989) find that in Brazilian households, the presence of younger siblings has a negative effect on school attendance of older children. In El Salvador, girls missed more school than boys because they stayed home to help with chores (Bittencourt and DiCicco 1979). Deolalikar (1998) finds significant differences in girls’ (but not boys’) school enrollment in householdswith children under 3 in Kenya. He reports a particularly strong effect for girls attending secondary school. The presence of a child 3 or younger reduces the probability that a girl aged 14–17 would be enrolled in secondary school by 41 percent, conditional on other determinants of enrollment. The corresponding effect for boys is only 5 percent. These studies indicate that when child care centers are unavailable or too costly, older siblings are more likely to provide child care.